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Pakistan | Family List | Poaceae

Bromus Linn., Sp. Pl. 1:76. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 33. 1754; Boiss., Fl. Or. 5:640. 1884; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 7:357. 1896; Rozhev. & Shishkin in Kom., Fl. URSS 2: 554. 1934; Bor, Fl. Assam 5:75. 1940; Ovchinnikov, Fl. Tadzh. 1:244. 1957; Sultan & Stewart, Grasses W. Pak. 2:173. 1959; Bor, Grasses Burma Ceyl. Ind. Pak. 452. 1960; Bor in Towns., Guest & Al-Rawi, Fl. Iraq 9:130. 1968; Bor in Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 70:107. 1970; Smith in Notes R. bot. Gdn Edinb. 30:361. 1970; Smith in Ann. Bot. 36: 1. 1972; Tzvelev, Poaceae URSS 225. 1976; Smith in Tutin et al., Fl. Eur. 5:182. 1980.

  • Anisantha C. Koch
  • Bromopsis Fourr.
  • Ceratochloa P. Beauv.
  • Nevskiella V. Krecz. & Vved.
  • Triniusa Steud.
  • Zerna* auct. non Panzer

    Annuals or perennials. Leaf-blades sometimes auriculate; sheaths usually hairy. Panicle usually fairly large and open, sometimes dense and contracted. Spikelets usually large, the lemmas well exserted from the glumes and awned from the sinus of the 2-toothed tip or from just below it, rarely with just an awn-point or mucro. Styles arising laterally from just below the hairy apex of the ovary.

    A genus of about 90 species in temperate regions; 17 species occur in Pakistan, 1 of them introduced.

    The presence of either Bromus arvensis Linn. (lemmas less than 6.5 mm, horny, angled, palea equalling lemma, grain inrolled at maturity, anthers (3-)4-5 mm long) or Bromus commutatus Schrad. (lemmas 8-11 mm, horny, smooth or angled, awns straight, terete, arising less than 1 mm from lemma tip, anthers 1-2.5 mm long) in Pakistan has not been confirmed. It is probable that both have been recorded in error. Bromus biebersteinii Roem. & Schult. (perennial, glabrous and glaucous) was recorded for the flora on the basis of incorrectly determined material.

    1 Lemmas strongly laterally compressed and keeled (Bromus Sect. Ceratochloa)   Bromus catharticus
    + Lemmas rounded on the back   (2)
    2 (1) Lemmas, or at least the upper, 3-awned, widened above the middle into a very distinct, obtuse angle (Bromus Sect. Triniusa)   Bromus danthoniae
    + Lemmas 1-awned or rarely awnless, if 3-awned then lemmas not or scarcely widened above the middle into an obtuse angle   (3)
    3 (2) Spikelets ovate, lanceolate, elliptic or oblong, tapering towards the tip, opening at anthesis, usually closing at maturity; lower glume 3-7-nerved; upper glume 5-9-nerved (Bromus Sect. Bromus)   (4)
    + Spikelets oblong or wedge-shaped, not elliptic nor lanceolate and not tapering towards the tip, gaping at maturity; lower glume 1-nerved (3-nerved in B. sericeus); upper glume 3-nerved (5-nerved in B. sericeus)   (9)
    4 (3) Panicle dense, erect, sometimes interrupted or verticillate; panicle branches and pedicels much shorter than the spikelets   (5)
    + Panicle lax, erect or nodding, somewhat contracted only when young or depauperate; at least some panicle branches and pedicels as long as or longer than the spikelets   (6)
    5 (4) Lemma 3-5 mm wide; caryopsis oblanceolate, more than 1 mm wide; panicle ovoid to ovoid oblong, sometimes with few spikelets   Bromus hordeaceus
    + Lemma not more than 2 mm wide; caryopsis narrowly elliptical, c.l mm wide; panicle ovoid cuneate or verticillate   Bromus scoparius
    6 (4) Panicle lax, erect; pedicels mostly equalling or shorter than their spikelets; spikelets (excluding the awns) 20-40 mm long; lemmas 11-15 mm long   Bromus lanceolatus
    + Panicle lax, nodding; pedicels mostly longer than their spikelets   (7)
    7 (6) Lower glume 9-11 mm long; lemmas (11-) 12-18 mm long; spikelets (excluding the awns) 30-50 mm long   Bromus oxyodon
    + Lower glume up to about 9 mm long; spikelets (excluding the awns) up to 30 mm long   (8)
    8 (7) Lemmas coriaceous, markedly rhomboid with inconspicuous nerves and blunt teeth; margins of lemmas overlapping at maturity; awn usually strongly reflexed   Bromus japonicus
    + Lemmas papery, evenly curved along the margins with conspicuous nerves and usually acuminate teeth; margins of lemmas somewhat inrolled at maturity and lemmas slightly divaricate; awn usually straight and erect, rarely curved   Bromus pectinatus
    9 (3) Tufted or rhizmatous perennials (Bromus Sect. Pnigma)   (10)
    + Annuals   (15)
    10 (9) Awn stout, at least as long as the lemma, straight or recurved at maturity   Bromus porphyranthos
    + Awn fine, usually shorter than the lemma, straight at maturity, sometimes absent   (11)
    11 (10) Rhizomes short or wanting, plants laxly to densely tufted   Bromus ramosus
    + Rhizomes long and creeping, plants with few or solitary culms, rarely the culms somewhat tufted but then the inflorescence a raceme   (12)
    12 (11) Lemmas densely hairy all over the back and on the side nerves   Bromus confinis
    + Lemmas glabrous or scabrid with minute appressed bristles, rarely somewhat appressed hairy on the lower part   (13)
    13 (12) Spikelets awnless or with awn-points up to 1.5 mm long; lemmas glabrous or rarely somewhat hairy at the base; plant mostly glabrous   Bromus inermis
    + Spikelets with awns 2-5 mm long; lemmas very slightly roughened with minute appressed bristles   (14)
    14 (13) Velutinous greyish-green plants, densely hairy on leaves, sheaths and stems   Bromus tomentosus
    + Culms glabrous; leaves and sheaths green, hispid or sparsely long-hairy   Bromus stenostachyus
    15 (9) Awn 1-2 times the length of the lemma; lemma elliptic or lanceolate in side view (Bromus Sect. Genea)   (16)
    + Awn 4-6 times the length of the lemma; lemma oblanceolate in side view (Bromus Sect. Nevskiella)   Bromus gracillimus
    16 (15) Lower glume 3(-rarely 1)-nerved; upper glume 5-nerved; lowest lemma 18-25 mm long with an awn 15-45 mm long   Bromus sericeus
    + Lower glume 1-nerved; upper glume 3-nerved; lowest lemma 10-14 mm long with an awn 10-15 mm long   Bromus tectorum

  • List of lower taxa


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