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Pakistan | Family List


Sven Landrein, Renata Borosova and Joanna Osborne

The Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, U.K.

Potentilla cathaclines

Evergreen or deciduous trees, shrubs, sarmentous shrubs or perennial herbs. Leaves mostly alternate, simple, imparipinnate, interruptedly imparipinnate, trifoliolate, ternate or palmately to pinnately compound, stipules deciduous or persistent (absent in Spiraea and Aruncus). Glands often present on leaves in the genus Prunus. Stems sometimes spiny or bearing prickles. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual (plants dioecious in Sorbaria), actinomorphic, (4-)5-merous, solitary, in racemes or compound racemes. Hypanthium usually very conspicuous, campanulate with more or less obvious nectary disc on its rim. Disc lobed in some genera. Sepals (4-)5, imbricate, mostly borne on hypanthium, epicalyx often present outside calyx, petals (4-)5, imbricate, free, rarely 0. Stamens 4 to numerous, anthers 2 or 1-locular, dehiscing longitudinally, intrastaminal. Ovary superior to inferior, carpels 1 to many, free to variously connate, with mostly two ovules per carpel or locule, stylodia 1 per carpel, stigmas capitate (penicillate in Sanguisorba). Fruits diverse, drupe, drupetum, nuculanium, pome, pometum, follicetum, achenetum or glandetum. Seeds 1 to several in each carpel or locule, usually without endosperm.

A family consisting of 85 genera and about 3000 species, including many apomictic lines (Mabberley, Plant Book, 3rd. Ed. 2008), cosmopolitan, represented by 27 genera and about 160 species in Pakistan.

Infrafamilial classification (Kalkman, Rosaceae in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen.Vasc. Pl. 6: 343-386. 2004).

Tribe Spiraeeae: Spiraea, Aruncus

Tribe Gillenieae: Sorbaria

Tribe Kerrieae: Kerria

Tribe Ulmariaea: Filipendula

Tribe Sanguisorbeae: Agrimonia, Sanguisorba

Tribe Potentilleae: Chamaerhodos, Potentilla, Sibbaldia, Duchesnea, Fragaria

Geum Group: Geum, Acomastylis

Tribe Rubeae: Rubus

Tribe Roseae: Rosa

Alchemilla Group: Alchemilla

Tribe Pruneae: Prunus, Prinsepia

Cydonia Group: Cydonia

Tribe Maleae: Sorbus, Eriobotrya, Malus, Pyrus

Tribe Crataegeae: Cotoneaster, Pyracantha, Crataegus

Note: The conventional groups in Rosaceae defined by Focke (subfam, Spiraoideae, Maloideae, Roisoideae and Prunoideae) are still much used but the phylogeny has not been worked out sufficiently and some groups are still unplaced in either Spiraeoideae, Maloideae or Rosoideae, Prunoideae.

Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the Directors/ Curators of the following herbaria for herbarium and library facilities: A, B, BM, CGE, E, G, GH, KOR, KUH, KYO, LE, LINN, MICH, NA, PE, RAW, RNG, US, UZ, Z. We thankfully acknowledge financial support for this publication from the Andrew Mellon Foundation and National Science Foundation (DEB 0103783), Washington, U.S.A. obtained through the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, U.S.A. We are grateful to Professor P. H. Raven of the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis for his assistance in securing the support. Grateful thanks are due to Prof. Dr. Pirzada Qasim Raza Siddiqui, Vice-Chancellor, University of Karachi and Professor Anjum Parveen, Director, Institute of Plant Conservation for providing working facilities to the project and for their understanding and encouragement. It is a matter of pleasure to thank Dr. Shahina A. Ghazanfar (Kew) for kindly helping us from time to time.

1 Carpels usually 5, free (if connate, ovary is superior), fruit a follicetum.   (2)
+ Carpels 1 to many, free to connate (if connate, ovary is inferior), fruit not a follicetum.   (4)
2 (1) Leaves ternate or imparipinnate, disc on rim of the hypanthium slightly lobed or not, carpels connate or not.   (3)
+ Leaves simple, disc on rim of the hypanthium lobed, carpels free.   Spireaea
3 (2) Plants herbaceous without stipules, carpels free, disc slightly divided into lobes.   Aruncus
+ Plants with woody branches, erect or prostrate with stipules, carpels connate, hypanthium closed at the mouth by the entire disc.   Sorbaria
4 (1) Herbs, shrubs or sarmentous shrubs. Carpels 1 to many and free. Fruit an achenetum (with drupaceous achenes in Kerria) , drupetum, pometum or glandetum.   (5)
+ Trees or shrubs. Carpels 1 or 3-5 and fused. Fruit a drupe, nuculanium or pome.   (18)
5 (4) Epicalyx present.   (6)
+ Epicalyx absent.   (12)
6 (5) Petals absent, hypanthium campanulate, almost closed by the disk at the mouth. Fruit a pometum.   Alchemilla
+ Petals present, hypanthium saucer-shaped to obconic, not closed. Fruit an achenetum or glandetum.   (7)
7 (6) Stylodia sub-terminal, lateral or sub-basal, leaves trifoliolate to imparipinnate.   (8)
+ Stylodia terminal, leaves imparipinnate.   (11)
8 (7) Receptacle fleshy in fruit, enclosing the seeds (fruit a glandetum). Seeds superficial to prominent.   (9)
+ Receptacle not fleshy in fruit, fruit an achenetum. Seeds sunken in the receptacle.   (10)
9 (8) Fruit tasteless, petals yellow, epicalyx broader than the sepals. Seeds prominent, red.   2 Duchesnea
+ Fruit tasty, petals white, epicalyx narrower than the sepals. Seeds superficial, brown.   3 Fragaria
10 (8) Stamens 10 or more, carpels numerous.   4 Potentilla
+ Stamens 4-5 (10), carpels 5-10 (12).   5 Sibbaldia
11 (11) Stylodia with caducous upper part, lower part persistent and hooked at the apex.   Geum
+ Stylodia not hooked at apex, without caducous upper part.   Acomastylis
12 (5) Herbs.   (13)
+ Erect or sarmentous shrubs.   (16)
13 (12) Hypanthium closed at the mouth, fruit a pometum.   (14)
+ Hypanthium open, fruit an achenetum.   (15)
14 (13) Hypanthium armed with hooks, petals present, stigma capitate. Inflorescence a raceme. Leaves interruptedly imparipinnate.   Agrimonia
+ Hypanthium unarmed, petals absent, stigma penicillate. Inflorescence in globular heads. Leaves imparipinnate.   Sanguisorba
15 (13) Stamens 5, stylodia lateral, 1 ovule per carpel. Leaves 1-3 times tripartite   1 Chamaerhodos
+ Stamens 20-40, stylodia terminal, 2 ovules per carpel. Leaves interruptedly imparipinnate.   Filipendula
16 (12) Sarmentous shrubs, usually prickly. Leaves imparipinnate or palmately to pinnately compound. Fruit a pometum or drupetum with numerous achenes/ druplets.   (17)
+ Erect shrub, leaves simple, fruit an achenetum with 4-5 drupaceous achenes.   Kerria
17 (16) Hypanthium closed at the mouth, fruit a pometum.   16 Rosa
+ Hypanthium open, fruit a drupetum.   Rubus
18 (4) Carpel 1, ovary superior, fruit a drupe or nuculanium.   (19)
+ Carpels 3-5, connate, ovary inferior, fruit a pome.   (20)
19 (18) Style terminal, hypanthium cupular, stipules usually conspicuous or deciduous.   Prunus
+ Style becoming sub-basal, hypanthium recurved, stipules minute.   Prinsepia
20 (18) Fruit a pome, mature fruit with stony endocarp.   (21)
+ Fruit a pome, mature fruit without a stony endocarp.   (23)
21 (20) Leaves entire, plants without spines.   Cotoneaster
+ Leaves crenate or lobed, plants with spines.   (22)
22 (21) Evergreen shrub, stipules caducous, leaves simple.   Pyracantha
+ Deciduous shrub, stipules persistent, leaves pinnately lobed.   Crataegus
23 (20) Leaves imparipinnate.   Sorbus subgenus Aucuparia
+ Leaves simple or lobed.   (24)
24 (23) Flowers solitary, ovary with many ovules per locule.   Cydonia
+ Flowers in axillary or terminal racemes, ovary with 2 ovules per locule.   (25)
25 (24) Evergreen tree, inflorescence a compound raceme.   Eriobotrya
+ Deciduous trees, inflorescence raceme or compound raceme.   (26)
26 (25) Leaves with secondary veins going straight to the margin. Inflorescence a compound raceme (not observed at fruiting stage).   Sorbus subgenus Aria
+ Leaves with secondary veins not going straight to the margins. Inflorescence a simple raceme usually on a brachyblast (short branch).   (27)
27 (26) Styles fused at the base, pome without sclereids.   Malus
+ Styles free at the base emerging through a hole in the middle of the disc. Pome with sclereids, pyriform to globose.   Pyrus

Lower Taxa

Related Synonym(s):


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