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Pakistan | Family List | Poaceae

Triticum Linn., Sp. Pl. 1:85. 1753. Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 37. 1754; Boiss., Fl. Or. 5: 672. 1884; Percival, The Wheat Plant, A Monograph.1921; Bor, Fl. Assam 5:84.1940; Sultan & Stewart, Grasses W. Pak. 2:323. 1959; Bor, Grasses Burma Ceyl. Ind. Pak. 678. 1960; Bor in Towns., Guest & Al-Rawi, Fl. Iraq 9:194. 1968; Bor in Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 70:203. 1970; Tzvelev, Poaceae URSS 160. 1976; Humphries in Tutin et al., Fl. Fur. 5:202. 1980.

Annuals. Leaf-blades flat. Inflorescence a distichous spike. Spikelets solitary at the nodes of the tough or fragile rhachis, laterally compressed, 2-6(-9)-flowered, the upper 1 or 2 florets usually sterile; glumes subequal, chartaceous or rarely membranous, asymmetrical, ± keeled, truncate, 1-2-toothed or awned; lemmas coriaceous, keeled towards the tip, scabrid, awned or awnless; palea membranous, 2-keeled.

A genus of about 25 species probably native only in the Middle East but in cultivation throughout much of the world (wheat); reports of 4 species in cultivation in Pakistan.

Triticum consists of a polyploid series in which there are diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid representatives with chromosome numbers of 2n = 14, 28 and 42. Genome analysis of the karyotypes has shown that only the diploids are genetically true Triticum. The others, strictly speaking, are intergeneric hybrids between Triticum and certain species of Aegilops. The tetraploids have a Triticum genome plus one derived from Aegilops speltoides Taush, while the hexaploids have both of these plus a third derived from Aegilops squarrosa Linn.

1 Glumes with a strongly compressed keel running from the base to the tip   (2)
+ Glumes with a compressed keel in the upper half only, rounded below (often the midnerve prominent to the base, but the glume is otherwise without a ridge below   (3)
2 (1) Glumes nearly as long as the lowest floret; endosperm flinty; spike ± slender, laterally compressed   Triticum durum
+ Glumes not more than two-thirds as long as the lowest floret; endosperm mealy; spike stout, nearly square in section, often compound   Triticum turgidum
3 (1) Spike short and rather stout, 3-6 times as long as wide; grain almost spherical   Triticum sphaerococcum
+ Spike more slender, much more than 6 times as long as wide; grain usually elliptic or oblong   Triticum aestivum

Lower Taxa


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