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Pakistan | Family List | Moraceae | Morus

4. Morus alba L., Sp. Pl. 986. 1753. Boiss., Fl. Or. 4:1153. 1879; Hoot: l.c. 492. Bomber, Pl. Punj. 15. 1916; Yarnsolenko, Fl. U.R.S.S. 5: 377. 1936; Parker, l.c. 472. Stewart , l.c. 194; Townsend, Pl. Iraq 4(1): 81. Pl. 16. fig. 7-11.1980; Browicz, l.c.

Vern.: Tut, Tutri, Tut Kishmishmi.


  • Morus alba var. purpurea Bureau
  • Morus atropurpurea Roxb.
  • Morus indica L.

    A monoedous, deciduous, 8-15 m or rarely up to 20 m tall tree with a dense, compact leafy crown. Trunk c.1.5-2 m in circumference, with dark grey-brown, rough, vertically fissured bark, tender twigs hairy to glabrescent. Leaves. with a crisped hairy, filiform,1-3 (-3.5) cm long petiole; lamina narrow to broad. ovate, (2.5-) 5-15 cm long, (2.5-) 4-12 cm wide, 3-costate from truncate to shallowly cordate base, upper surface glabrous, midrib and principal wins pubescent, secondary veins and ultimate veinlets glabrous, margin regularly serrate or crenate-serrate or ± irregularly 2-serrate, apex obtuse, acute or shortly acuminate; stipules lanceolate, brownish membranous, hairy. Male catkins 10-20 (-30) mm long including slender, hairy peduncle, c. 5.6 mm broad, with lax flowers. Male flowers: sepals free, broadly ovate, c. 2.5 mm long, cucullate, obtuse, glabrous to ± hairy; staminal filaments ± equal to sepals, with ovate, exserted anthers. Female catkins ovoid, (2) 5-10 (-12) mm long, with out equally long or slightly longer peduncle. Female flowers: sepals suborbicular, c. as long as or slightly larger than of male flowers, glabrous or ± ciliate on margins; ovary with glabrous free styles. Sorosis ovoid, (10-) 15-25 mm long, 5-8 mm across, white to pinkish-purple or black, sweet, edible.

    Fl. Per.: April-September.

    Type: Habitat in China, Herb. Linn. 1112/1 (LINN).

    Distribution: Native of China and probably in temperate Asia, now widely distributed in Japan, China, Malaya, Burma, Indo-Pak. Subcontinent westwards to N. Africa, South & Central Europe; introduced in the New world.

    The white mulberry tree is cultivated and subspontaneous in all . parts of Pakistan from sea level to 3500 m. It is grown for rearing silk worms and for its edible fruits which are cooling and laxative. The fruit is also used for sore throat, dyspepsia and melancholia. It is collected, dried and used as winter food by the Kalash tribes of the Bumboret and Ayun valleys in Chitral. The bark possesses vermifuge and purgative properties. The wood is used chiefly for making hockey sticks, badminton and tennis rackets, cricket bats and stumps. It is also suitable for house building, agricultural implements, furniture & fuel.


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