Raphanus laevigatus M. Bieb.
Annual, 15-50 cm tall, glabrous, rarely very sparsely hispid below and on the margins of leaves. Basal leaves rosulate, 3-10 cm long, 1-2.5 cm broad, oblong-elliptic to oblanceolate, sinuate- dentate to subentire, sessile; cauline leaves lanceolate to linear-oblong, 1-6 cm long, 5-15 mm broad, sessile, often amplexicaul with auricled bases, dentate to entire. Racemes 15-30-flowered, lax, up to 20 cm long in fruit. Flowers c. 3 mm across, white or pale pinkish; pedicels up to 10 mm long in fruit, thin, ± deflexed. Sepals 2 mm long. Petals c. 4 mm long, 1 mm broad. Stamens c. 1.5: 2 mm long. Fruits c. 10 mm long, 3 mm broad, quadrangular, ± constricted between the seeds, often prominently so in the middle, slightly upcurved, apex subcompressed, acute; valves thick, coriaceous, glabrous, with a prominent mid-rib; stigma short, depressed, slightly bilobed, sessile; seeds usually 3, oblong, c. 2 mm long, 1 mm broad, pale brown.
Fl. Per.: March-May.
Type: Astrachan, Bieberstein.
Distribution: Most of Asia, Trans-Caspian region, and Turkey.
A very variable species in fruit and leave characters. Forms with rugose and smooth fruits may be found together or sometimes both type of fruits may be found even on the same plant. Same is the case with auricled, amplexicaul and cuneate leaf bases.