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Pakistan | Family List | Poaceae | Parapholis

Parapholis incurva (Linn.) C.E. Hubbard in Blumea, Suppl. 3:14. 1946. Sultan & Stewart, Grasses W.Pak. 2:317. 1959; Bor in Towns., Guest & Al-Rawi, Fl. Iraq 9:266. 1968; Bor in Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 70:246. 1970; Tzvelev, Poaceae URSS 529. 1976; Tutin in Tutin et al., Fl. Eur. 5:293. 1980.

  • Aegilops incurva Linn.
  • Aegilops incurvata Linn.
  • Lepturus incurvatus (Linn.) Trin.
  • Lepturus incurvus (Linn.) Druce
  • Pholiurus incurvatus (Linn.) Hitchc.
  • Pholiurus incurvus (Linn.) Schinz & Thell.

    Tufted annual; culms 2-25 cm high, erect or prostrate and ascending. Leaf-blades flat or convolute when dry, 0.5-3(-8) cm long, 1-2 mm wide, scabrid above; uppermost sheath inflated. Spikes solitary, rigid, curved or rarely straight, 1-10 cm long, cylindrical, the joints deeply hollowed on one side, breaking horizontally beneath each spikelet at maturity. Spikelets 4-8 mm long, the lowest nearly always included on the uppermost sheath; glumes equal, as long as the spikelet, lanceolate-acuminate, the keel not winged; lemma with one side adjacent to the rhachis; anthers 0.5-1 mm long.

    Fl. & Fr. Per.: April-May.

    Type: Orient, Tournefort..

    Distribution: Pakistan (Baluchistan, Punjab & N.W.F.P.); Middle East and the Mediterranean region; coast of West Europe; introduced in North and South America and Australia.

    Curved Sea Hard-grass is mostly a plant of sandy, rarely saline soils near the sea and maritime rocks, but it also occurs around ports and as a weed in cultivated areas, usually below 1300 m, but at 2000 m in Quetta.


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