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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 22 | Poaceae | Parapholis

1. Parapholis incurva (Linnaeus) C. E. Hubbard, Blumea, Suppl. 3: 14. 1946.

假牛鞭草 jia niu bian cao

Aegilops incurva Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1051. 1753; Lepid-urus incurvus (Linnaeus) Janchen; Lepturus incurvus (Linnaeus) Druce; Pholiurus incurvus (Linnaeus) Schinz & Thellung; Rottboellia incurva (Linnaeus) Roemer & Schultes.

Culms tufted, decumbent at base, 10–25 cm tall, much branched in lower part. Leaf sheaths rounded, smooth, glabrous; leaf blades linear, flat or folded, 2.5–8 cm × 1–2 mm, glabrous, abaxial surface smooth, adaxial surface and margins scabrid, finely acute; ligule 0.5–1 mm, truncate. Raceme slenderly cylindrical, 4–10 cm, falcately curved; rachis smooth, joints shorter than spikelets. Spikelets 6–8 mm; glumes as long as spikelet, narrowly oblong-subulate, 3–5-veined, glabrous, acute; lemma lanceolate, 4–5 mm, 3-veined, the laterals very short, glabrous. Anthers 0.5–1 mm. Caryopsis tawny, 3–3.5 mm. Fl. Apr–Jun. 2n = 38.

Seashores, coastal salt marshes, introduced. Fujian, Zhejiang (Putuo) [Turkmenistan; N Africa, SW Asia, Europe; introduced in S Africa, America, and Australia].

Parapholis and a few other genera of mostly annual grasses adapted to saline conditions are sometimes placed in the tribe Hainardi-eae. They are distinguished from typical Poeae by the distinctive rat-tail inflorescence and glumes placed side-by-side. However, they are clearly related to other less specialized annual members of Poeae, and recent molecular evidence places them within this tribe.


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