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Pakistan | Family List | Pakistan V. 206 | Cyperaceae | Cyperus

1. Cyperus subg. Cyperus

When the distal partial inflorescence, or cluster of spikes (as it is called below), is formed by a small number of spikes (e.g. C. longus), it may resemble the cluster structure found in subg. Pycnostachys.

1 (1) Inflorescence a large compound anthelodium; distal partial nflorescences cylindrical, twice as long as wide or more, to 50 mm long (excl. peduncle), 10-30 mm wide, with (30)40-100 spikes.   (1)
+ Inflorescence a multiple spike or small anthelodium; distal partial inflorescences ovoid or obovoid, to 10-25 x 3-30 mm, if much longer than wide, then c. 3-5 mm wide (C. iria and C. alulatus), with 3-30(40) spikes.   (2)
2 (2) + Stigmas 3.   (2)
+ Stigmas 2 (or partly 3).   4 C. alopecuroides
3 Spikes but slightly compressed, subterete, at right angles to rachis when ripe; glumes muticous or apiculate.   2 C. digitatus
+ Spikes distinctly compressed, from suberect to spreading at right angles from rachis when ripe; glumes with short but distinct mucro.   (4)
4 (3) Distal partial inflorescences sessile or peduncle very short; spikes suberect, completely hiding rachis of partial inflorescence.   5 C. imbricatus
+ Peduncles of distal partial inflorescences to 50 mm; spikes obliquely patent to almost at right angles to rachis, the latter therefore visible.   (5)
5 (4) Spikes less crowded and leaving rachis visible; glumes brown with nerves on sides.   3 C. exaltatus
+ Spikes crowded, rachis hardly visible between; glumes yellow or light brown, sides nerveless.   1 C. dives
6 (6) Robust plants; basal leaf-blades reduced, practically absent or few and short.   (6)
+ Smaller plants; leaf-blades well-developed, long .   (7)
7 (6) Culm terete, septate.   6 C. articulatus
+ Culm trigonous, at least, in distal part, not or obscurely sepatate.   (8)
8 (7) Culm distinctly trigonous to base, sides concave; spike axis hardly winged.   9 C. malaccensis
+ Culm distally obtusely trigonous; spike rachis widely winged.   (9)
9 (8) Rhizome short, culm not septate; spike rachis with reddish wings.   8 C. pangorei
+ Rhizome long, stoloniferous, culm sometimes obscurely septate; spike rachis with hyaline, colourless wings.   7 C. corymbosus
10 (10) Distal partial inflorescences compact, globose or ellipsoid groups of spikes (rachis not visible); spikes 1-1.5 mm wide.   (10)
+ Distal partial inflorescences not compact; with spikes diffusely arranged (rachis visible), or if sometimes. rather compact, then spikes 2-2.5 mm wide (C. glaber).   (11)
11 (10) Inflorescence greenish; primary rays several, to more than 20 cm long, rigidly suberect.   15 C. nutans
+ Inflorescence brown; primary rays few, up to 7 cm long.   16 C. glomeratus
12 (12) Annuals, roots fibrous.   (12)
+ Stoloniferous perennials.   (13)
13 (13) Glumes 1-2 mm, apex widely rounded; keel incurved, obtuse; sides nerveless, hyaline.   (13)
+ Glumes 2-4 mm, apex narrow; keel straight or recurved, obtuse or mucronate; only margins nerveless, scarious, not hyaline.   (14)
14 (13) Spikes finally reflexed; glumes 1.5-2 mm.   17 C. alulatus
+ Spikes suberect; glumes 1-1.5 mm.   18 C. iria
15 Spikes 8-20 x c. 3.5 mm, with to 40 flowers, strongly compressed.   19 C. compressus
+ Spikes 7-9 x 2.5-3 mm, with 8-14 flowers, not strongly compressed.   20 C. glaber
16 Flowers distigmatic.   21 C. serotinus
+ Flowers tristigmatic.   (17)
17 (16) Inflorescence with 2 or more foliose involucral bracts separated by distict internode; leafblades 1.5-3 mm wide, very long attenuate; stolons thin (less than 0.5 mm, resembling roots), white, short-lived, ending to black bulbil.   10 C. bulbosus
+ No distinct internodes between involucral bracts; leafblades mostly more than 3 mm wide; stolons c. 1 mm diam. or more, not ending with black bulbil.   (18)
18 (17) Stolons rather soft, white, c. 1 mm diam. (thicker than roots), ending with globose, whitish tuber; glumes yellow or light brown, sides with 3-4 long, distinct nerves.   11 C. esculentus
+ Stolons strong, ligneous; glumes brown to reddish or blackish brown, sides not with 3-4 distinct nerves.   (19)
19 (19) Inflorescence an anthelodium, with up to 70 mm long, not rigidly suberect primary rays; spikes in distal partial inflorescence mostly distinctly pikately arranged, spreading, subterete or terete; stolons long, producing rooting tubers.   (19)
+ Inflorescence an anthelodium, with up to 15 cm long, rigid, suberect primary rays; spikes in distal partial inflorescences nearly digitately together, suberect, compressed; stolons short, without tubers.   14 C. longus
20 Stolons up to 3 mm diam.; involucral bracts 1.5-2 mm wide, primary rays few, to 25 mm; spikes turgid, terete; glumes closely imbricating.   13 C. stoloniferus
+ Stolons up to 2 mm diam.; involucral bracts to 6 mm wide, primary rays to 60 mm; spikes not turgid, subterete; glumes not closely imbricating.   12 C. rotundus


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