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BFNA | Family List | BFNA Vol. 2 | Orthotrichaceae | Orthotrichum

Orthotrichum bolanderi Sullivant, Icon. Musc. Suppl. 64 Pl. 46. 1874.

Plants 0.5--4 cm. Stem leaves stiffly erect-appressed, rarely incurved when dry, lanceolate, 2--3.5 mm, narrowly obtuse to acute; margins plane, entire; distal laminal cells 7--11 µm wide, 2-stratose, each cell with 2--4 conical, sometimes large papillae; basal laminal cells elongate, with ± wavy walls, smooth. Sexual condition goniautoicous. Seta ± 1 mm. Capsule emergent; urn ovate-oblong when mature, ovate-cylindric when old, 1.4--2 mm, lightly 8-ribbed in distal 1/3 of capsule; stomates superficial; peristome double; endostome segments 8, 2 rows of cells, papillose; exostome teeth 8, reflexed-recurved, papillose to coarsely papillose-striate. Calyptra oblong-conic, with papillose hairs. Spores 17--23 µm.

Rocks, especially sandstone; 100--2000 m; Calif., Wash.; Mexico; Central America (Guatemala).

Orthotrichum bolanderi is the only species with superficial stomates that has 2-stratose leaves. It has leaves with a subsheathing base, ovoid cylindric capsules with a long wrinkled neck, and exostome teeth that are reflexed-recurved. When dry the leaves are stiffly erect-appressed and when wet they lie flat on a microscope slide.


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