Orthotrichum speciosum var. raui (Austin) Lesquereux & James
Plants 0.5--4.3 cm, usually ± 2 cm. Stem leaves erect-appressed, slightly secund and stiff when dry, oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 2--4.3 mm, obtuse, bluntly acute, or gradually acuminate to narrowly acute; margins revolute from base to near apex, entire; distal laminal cells 8--12 µm wide, 1-stratose, densely papillose with low, 1--3 conical or low-forked papillae; basal laminal cells rectangular to elongate, grading to elliptic-quadrate, nodose. Sexual condition goniautoicous. Seta 1.5--4 mm. Capsule fully exserted; urn cylindric, 1.4--2.6 mm, smooth or sometimes slightly plicate in distal portion; stomates superficial; endostome segments 8, 1 row of cells, caducous and inconspicuous; exostome teeth 16, erect, papillose-granulose, coarsely papillose or striate-papillose. Calyptra conic-oblong, sparsely hairy, hairs finely papillose. Spores 10--15 µm.
Usually on non-calcareous boulders in mesic, yet open coniferous forests; rarely at the base of deciduous trees; 500--3,000; Alta., B.C., Man., N.W.T., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., Nev., Oreg., S.D., Utah, Wash., Wyo.; Europe; Asia (Japan).
Orthotrichum laevigatum is a part of a complex group of intergrading taxa that generally are characterized by an exserted, cylindric capsule with 16 erect or reflexed exostome teeth and a poorly developed endostome. Gametophytically, robust plants have stiff, erect leaves and large, blunt papillae. This complex is treated here as three species. These are O. holzingeri, a distinct, highly specialized species of seasonally wet rocks with smooth exostome teeth, smooth leaf cells, smooth calyptra, and lightly ribbed capsule as distinguishing features; O. pylaisii, distinguished by lightly 8-ribbed capsule and reflexed-recurved exostome teeth; and O. laevigatum, distinguished by smooth capsule; erect, papillose exostome teeth.