Orthotrichum rhabdophorum Venturi
Plants to 3 cm. Stem leaves erect-appressed when dry, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 2--3 mm, broadly acute to narrowly obtuse, often bluntly acuminate; margins revolute, entire; distal laminal cells 9--16 µm wide, 1-stratose, with 1--4 forked papillae; basal laminal cells rectangular-elongate, ± nodose. Sexual condition goniautoicous. Seta 2--3 mm. Capsule emergent or exserted; urn oblong to cylindric, 1.2--2.5 mm, moderately 8-ribbed ± 1/2 length; stomates superficial; peristome double or single; endostome segments 8, about 1/2 as long as exostome, smooth or finely papillose, often not present; exostome teeth 16, sometimes united into 8 pairs, 4--6 cells wide, densely papillose. Calyptra oblong to oblong-conic, sparsely hairy. Spores 16--27 µm.
Usually on rocks near the ocean or in alpine or arctic zones, rarely on trees such as Salix or Alnus, bone and frequently in or near bird rookeries, in western North America found on granitic boulders in coniferous forests; 100--3000 m; Greenland; B.C., Alta., Man., Nfld., N.W.T. Nun., Que., Yukon; Alaska, Calif., Idaho, Mont., Wash., Wyo.; n Europe; n Asia.
This species is distinguished by ribbed capsules with reflexed exostome teeth and a rudimentary endostome, along with superficial stomates and large, ovate-lanceolate leaves. The capsule is almost always exserted in North America; however, in Europe it is sometimes only emergent.