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2. Bauhinia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 374. 1753.

羊蹄甲属 yang ti jia shu

Authors: Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Kai Larsen & Supee Saksuwan Larsen

Bauhinia sect. Lasiobema Korthals; Lasiobema (Korthals) Miquel; Phanera Loureiro; Piliostigma Hochstetter.

Trees, shrubs, or lianas, hermaphroditic, monoecious, andromonoecious, or androdioecious. Leaves simple, bilobed or entire, rarely 2-foliolate with a shared upper pulvinus; primary veins 3-15, midvein ending with a free, small point; stipules caducous. Inflo­rescences solitary flowers, or many flowers in racemes, panicles, or corymbs; bracts and bracteoles usually small and caducous. Hypanthium cupular, campanulate, or tubular. Calyx closed or open with 5 short or linear teeth at apex in bud, at anthesis spatha­ceous, or regularly or irregularly split into 2-5 lobes. Petals 5, subequal to strongly differentiated, subsessile or prominently clawed, white, yellowish orange, pink, or purplish red. Stamens 2, 3, 5, or 10; anthers dorsifixed, longitudinally dehiscent. Staminodes pres­ent or not. Ovary 1- to many ovuled, sessile or with stalk; stigma small or prominent, variously shaped. Fruit flat, elliptic, oblong, obovoid, or linear, woody or thinly valved, dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds few to many; endosperm present or not.

About 300 species: pantropical; 47 species (23 endemic, two introduced) in China.

The key is based on flowering material as there are too many species for which the mature legumes are not known. Bauhinia tianlinensis is known only from fruiting material so could not be included in the key. Legumes of China (Zhu et al., 37, 40, 42, 43, 47. 2007) listed a further five species not included in this manuscript: B. clemensiorum Merrill from Guangxi; B. galpinii N. E. Brown cultivated in Hong Kong; B. godefroyi Gagnepain from Yunnan; B. lakhonensis Gagnepain from Guangxi; and B. strychnoidea Prain ex King from Yunnan.


1 Calyx spathaceous, splitting along one side or into 2 unequal lobes; trees or shrubs without tendrils; flowers with 5 or 10 fertile stamens (or with female flowers lacking anthers) (B. purpurea with 3 fertile stamens)   (2)
+ Calyx with 4 or 5 ± equal lobes; lianas usually with tendrils (B. bohniana an erect shrub 1-2 m high); flowers with 2 or 3 fertile stamens   (10)
       
2 (1) Petals 0.7-1.2 cm   (3)
+ Petals 3-8 cm   (5)
       
3 (2) Flowers bisexual with 10 unequal fertile stamens and well-developed ovary; petals yellowish; legume 12-20-seeded.   8 B. racemosa
+ Flowers unisexual, lacking either functional ovary or fertile anthers; petals white or greenish white; legume 2-10-seeded   (4)
       
4 (3) Inflorescence leaf-opposed, 10-15-flowered; stamens ca. 10 mm; legume 6-10-seeded.   6 B. viridescens
+ Inflorescence terminal, to 50-flowered, sometimes much condensed; stamens 5-6 mm; legume 2-7-seeded.   7 B. brachycarpa
       
5 (2) Fertile stamens 10; petals white; leaf blade ovate-cordate to cordate   (6)
+ Fertile stamens 3 or 5; petals pink, purple, or white with pink spots, occasionally all white; leaf blade orbicular, suborbicular, or broadly ovate   (8)
       
6 (5) Leaf blade 3-7 × 4-8 cm, papery, abaxially tomentose.   9 B. tomentosa
+ Leaf blade 6-11(-16) × 8-12.5 cm, subleathery, abaxially pubescent   (7)
       
7 (6) Young shoots glabrous; leaf bifid to 1/3-2/5; legume sharply ridged near suture.   1 B. acuminata
+ Young shoots brownish pubescent or hirsute; leaf bifid to 1/4; legume not ridged near suture.   3 B. hirsuta
       
8 (5) Fertile stamens 3, staminodes 5 or 6; leaf bifid to 1/3-1/2, lobes slightly acute or rarely rounded at apex.   4 B. purpurea
+ Fertile stamens 5, staminodes 1-5, sometimes absent; leaf bilobed to 1/4-1/3, lobes rounded or narrowly rounded   (9)
       
9 (8) Petals purplish, 5-8 cm; sterile hybrid not forming fruit.   2 B. ×blakeana
+ Petals white, often with pink or purple spots, 4-5 cm; legume linear, 15-25 × 1.5-2 cm.   5 B. variegata
       
10 (1) Leaves 2-foliolate, primary veins 3-5 per lobe   (11)
+ Leaves entire or bifid for up to 1/2 length   (13)
       
11 (10) Shoots hairy; leaf lobes acuminate; receptacle ca. 5 mm.   37 B. carcinophylla
+ Shoots glabrous; leaf lobes obtuse; receptacle 7-12 mm   (12)
       
12 (11) Tendrils solitary; receptacle 10-12 mm; petals white, broadly obovate, ca. 9 mm.   42 B. didyma
+ Tendrils paired; receptacle 7-8 mm; petals pinkish with dark red stripes, spatulate, ca. 17 mm.   24 B. yunnanensis
       
13 (10) Leaves entire to shallowly bifid for up to 1/6 length, primary veins 3-9   (14)
+ Leaves bifid for more than 1/5 length, primary veins 7-13   (25)
       
14 (13) Petals orange or reddish, 25-30 mm.   23 B. coccinea
+ Petals white or greenish white (color not recorded for B. cercidifolia or B. wuzhengyii), 2.5-10 mm   (15)
       
15 (14) Leaf blade abaxially glabrous or nearly so   (16)
+ Leaf blade abaxially pubescent   (20)
       
16 (15) Leaf blade 1.5-4 cm; inflorescence a simple raceme, 5-9 cm.   20 B. venustula
+ Leaf blade 4.6-10 cm; inflorescence a panicle, or if unbranched then more than 10 cm   (17)
       
17 (16) Leaf blade with primary veins 3-5, base attenuate or rounded; petals 4-10 mm; tendrils rare or apparently absent   (18)
+ Leaf blade with primary veins usually 7-9, base shallowly cordate to truncate; petals 2.5-3 mm; tendrils usually present   (19)
       
18 (17) Petals 4-5 mm; leaf base rounded.   27 B. paucinervata
+ Petals 7-10 mm; leaf base attenuate.   31 B. wuzhengyii
       
19 (17) Fertile stamens 3; petiole 2-4 cm; leaf blade 4-8 cm wide, papery; pedicel 3-4 mm.   13 B. scandens
+ Fertile stamens 2; petiole 4.5-5 cm; leaf blade 9-11 cm wide, leathery; pedicel ca. 18 mm.   15 B. cercidifolia
       
20 (15) Inflorescence 7-25 cm, pedicels 3.5-15 mm; petals 3.5-6 mm; staminodes 2   (21)
+ Inflorescence 3.5-8 cm, pedicels 15-22 mm; petals 6-10 mm; staminodes 7: 2 longer and free, others joined at base (not recorded for B. apertilobata)   (23)
       
21 (20) Pedicel 3.5-4 mm.   19 B. lingyuenensis
+ Pedicel 10-15 mm   (22)
       
22 (21) Leaf blade ovate or cordate; petals spatulate.   17 B. championii
+ Leaf blade suborbicular; petals obovate or oblong.   10 B. longistipes
       
23 (20) Flower bud ellipsoid with protruding apex; receptacle broadly funnelform; petals spatulate.   16 B. apertilobata
+ Flower bud ovoid; receptacle cylindric or elongate; petals subrhombic, broadly obovate, or elliptic   (24)
       
24 (23) Leaf blade 5-8 × 4-6.5 cm; receptacle 8-9 mm; petals unequal, 3 rhombic, 2 elliptic, claw 3-4 mm.   44 B. quinnanensis
+ Leaf blade 3-4 × 2-3 cm; receptacle ca. 15 mm; petals subrhombic, broadly obovate, or elliptic, claw 6-8 mm 46.   B. ovatifolia
       
25 (13) Erect shrubs, tendrils absent; petals pink.   25 B. bohniana
+ Lianas, tendrils present; petals white or light yellowish, rarely with pink veins or reddish base, or red or golden yellow (sometimes pale pink in B. hainanensis)   (26)
       
26 (25) Ovary glabrous   (27)
+ Ovary hairy, at least on sutures   (33)
       
27 (26) Leaf blade bifid for more than 1/2 length   (28)
+ Leaf blade bifid for 1/5-1/2 length   (30)
       
28 (27) Inflorescence ca. 5 cm; bracts and bracteoles ca. 3 mm; petals white with pink veins; legume 10-25 cm.   41 B. corymbosa
+ Inflorescence 10-30 cm; bracts and bracteoles 5-9 mm, brushlike in young inflorescences; petals yellow or whitish yellow; legume 5-8 cm   (29)
       
29 (28) Flower buds ovoid; staminodes 2; floral disk annular.   11 B. comosa
+ Flower buds conical; staminodes 4; floral disk U-shaped.   12 B. esquirolii
       
30 (27) Fertile stamen filament 25-30 mm; receptacle 3-5 mm; leaf blade 8-18 cm   (31)
+ Fertile stamen filament 8-12 mm; receptacle 7-15(-30) mm; leaf blade 4-6(-9) cm   (32)
       
31 (30) Pedicel 1-1.5 cm; calyx lobes not reflexed, one free, others in 2 adnate parts, ca. 6 mm; staminodes 2.   28 B. hainanensis
+ Pedicel 2-2.8 cm; calyx lobes reflexed at anthesis, ovate, ca. 10 mm; staminodes 5-7.   21 B. chalcophylla
       
32 (30) Shoots glabrous; calyx lobes 5; legume 12-15 cm.   45 B. damiaoshanensis
+ Shoots reddish pubescent when young; calyx lobes 2 or 3; legume 18-25 cm.   40 B. glauca
       
33 (26) Leaf blade abaxially glabrous   (34)
+ Leaf blade abaxially hairy at least on veins   (36)
       
34 (33) Stems glabrous; leaf blade with yellowish margin.   29 B. japonica
+ Stems hairy at least when young; leaf blade uniformly green   (35)
       
35 (34) Leaf blade 10-15 cm wide, bifid for up to 1/5 length; pedicel ca. 1.5 cm.   30 B. wallichii
+ Leaf blade 5-10 cm wide, bifid for at least 1/2 length; pedicel 4-5 cm.   36 B. erythropoda
       
36 (33) Leaf blade 9-18(-20) cm wide, abaxially tomentose when young   (37)
+ Leaf blade 3.5-9(-12) cm wide, abaxially pubescent when young   (40)
       
37 (36) Leaf blade abaxially thickly golden tomentose, primary veins 15-17; inflorescence conical; pedicel 0.9-1 cm.   33 B. hypochrysa
+ Leaf blade abaxially rusty or yellow-brown tomentose, primary veins 9-13; inflorescence ± flat-topped to rounded; pedicel 2-5 cm   (38)
       
38 (37) Petiole 8-11 cm; bracts persistent.   39 B. ornata
+ Petiole 1.2-7 cm; bracts caducous   (39)
       
39 (38) Leaf blade 12-18(-23) cm.   35 B. aurea
+ Leaf blade 9-12.5 cm.   34 B. rubrovillosa
       
40 (36) Petals red or golden yellow.   26 B. khasiana
+ Petals white, sometimes reddish at base or tinged yellow or green   (41)
       
41 (40) Petals 4-6 mm   (42)
+ Petals 15-30 mm   (44)
       
42 (41) Leaf blade bifid to 1/6-1/5 of length; bracts 6-9 mm; lower pedicels to 20 mm.   43 B. touranensis
+ Leaf blade bifid to 1/3-1/2 of length; bracts 3-4 mm; lower pedicels 3-5 mm   (43)
       
43 (42) Flower bud ca. 2 mm; leaf blade and legume valves leathery.   14 B. delavayi
+ Flower bud ca. 5 mm; leaf blade papery; legume valves woody.   18 B. hypoglauca
       
44 (41) Calyx lobes 2 or 3; petals to 15 mm, apex acute.   38 B. calciphila
+ Calyx lobes 5; petals 20-30 mm, apex emarginate   (45)
       
45 (44) Inflorescence conical; pedicel 0.7-3 cm; calyx lobes not reflexed.   32 B. pyrrhoclada
+ Inflorescence ± flat-topped; pedicel 4-5 cm; calyx lobes reflexed   (46)
       
46 (45) Calyx lobes ca. 12 mm; filaments 15-17 mm, lower part pubescent.   36 B. erythropoda
+ Calyx lobes 25-30 mm; filaments ca. 35 mm, glabrous.   22 B. nervosa

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