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32. Chimonobambusa Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo). 28: 153. 1914.

方竹属 fang zhu shu

Authors: De-Zhu Li & Chris Stapleton

Menstruocalamus T. P. Yi; Oreocalamus Keng; Qiongzhuea Hsueh & T. P. Yi.

Shrubby bamboos, rarely subarborescent. Rhizomes leptomorph, with running underground stems. Culms usually diffuse, sometimes tillering (pluricaespitose), erect; internodes terete or 4-angled, often basally grooved above branches; nodes prominent to very prominent, basal nodes often with a ring of sparse or dense root thorns; sheath scars usually with a ring of pubescence or persistent base of culm sheath. Branches 3(–7 on upper culm), subequal, buds ovate-triangular, open at front, prophyll reduced. Culm sheaths deciduous and leathery, or sometimes persistent and papery; auricles minute or absent; blade reduced, to 1 cm, narrow. Leaves (1 or)2–5 per ultimate branch; blade lanceolate, base cuneate. Inflorescence fully bracteate, weakly iterauctant, 1–3 single pseudospikelet racemes loosely fasciculate, subtended by gradually enlarged bracts. Spikelets several to many flowered, sessile. Rachilla disarticulating. Glumes usually 1–3, frequently one subtending a bud; lemma papery or membranous; palea membranous, 2-keeled, obtuse; lodicules 3, membranous. Stamens 3; filaments free. Ovary ellipsoid; style 1, short; stigmas 2 or 3, plumose. Fruit a nutlike caryopsis with a hardened pericarp. New shoots Apr–Nov.

About 37 species: E Asia; 34 species (31 endemic) in China.

In addition to the species treated below, Chimonobambusa tianquanensis T. P. Yi (J. Bamboo Res. 19(1): 11. 2000) was described from sterile material from Sichuan (Tianquan). In the protologue it was compared with C. quadrangularis. Qiongzhuea gracilis W. T. Lin, (J. Bamboo Res. 19(4): 1. 2000) was described from Guangdong (Yangshan). In the protologue it was compared with Q. opienensis (C. opienensis in this account). Qiongzhuea multigemmia T. P. Yi (J. Bamboo Res. 19(1): 18. 2000) was described from Sichuan (Yingjing). In the protologue it was compared with Q. verruculosa (C. verruculosa in this account).

1 Culm sheaths persistent   (2)
+ Culm sheaths deciduous or gradually deciduous (persistent in C. luzhiensis)   (8)
2 (1) Culm sheath blade longer than 1 cm   (3)
+ Culm sheath blade shorter than 0.6 cm   (4)
3 (2) Culm base intranode without root thorns, initially glabrous.   1 C. sichuanensis
+ Culm base intranode with root thorns, initially verrucose-setose and pubescent.   2 C. leishanensis
4 (2) Culm sheaths shorter than internodes.   3 C. pubescens
+ Culm sheaths longer than internodes   (5)
5 (4) Culm internodes initially glabrous; culm sheaths glabrous or sparsely setose   (6)
+ Culm internodes initially white pubescent; culm sheaths densely setose   (7)
6 (5) Culm 1–1.5(–3) m, only basal culm nodes with roots or root thorns, culms cylindrical.   4 C. marmorea
+ Culm taller than 3 m, basal to mid-culm nodes with root thorns, culms slightly 4-angular.   5 C. purpurea
7 (5) Leaf sheath ligule ca. 6 mm; leaf blade secondary veins 4- or 5-paired.   6 C. damingshanensis
+ Leaf sheath ligule shorter than 1 mm; leaf blade secondary veins 3- or 4-paired.   7 C. brevinoda
8 (1) Culm nodes prominently swollen; intranode without root thorns; internodes circular in cross section; culm sheaths deciduous   (9)
+ Culm nodes slightly swollen, usually with root thorns at lower nodes, internodes partially 4-angular in cross section   (11)
9 (8) Culm internodes 10–15 cm, 0.4–1 cm in diam.; culm white powdery when young.   8 C. hsuehiana
+ Culm internodes 15–33 cm, 1–3 cm in diam.; culm glabrous, not white powdery   (10)
10 (9) Culm internodes (18–)29–33 cm; culm sheaths abaxially glabrous; leaf blades 1.6–5 cm wide, secondary veins 5–8-paired.   9 C. macrophylla
+ Culm internodes 15–25 cm; culm sheaths abaxially densely brown setose; leaf blades 0.6–1.2 cm wide, secondary veins 2- or 3(or 4)-paired.   10 C. tumidissinoda
11 (8) Culm nodes with well-developed root thorns   (12)
+ Culm nodes without root thorns   (27)
12 (11) Culm sheaths longer than the corresponding internodes   (13)
+ Culm sheaths shorter than corresponding internodes   (17)
13 (12) Culm nodes with a tomentose ring; culm sheaths sparsely minutely adnately brown setose.   11 C. hirtinoda
+ Culm nodes without a tomentose ring; culm sheaths with erect, swollen-based setae   (14)
14 (13) Culm sheaths with light green or white stripes, yellow-brown, later becoming fulvous, veinlets distinct, purple.   12 C. lactistriata
+ Culm sheaths without stripes   (15)
15 (14) Culm node sheath scar rings glabrous; culm sheaths leathery, glabrous or sparsely hairy near base.   13 C. paucispinosa
+ Culm node sheath scar rings brown tomentose; culm sheaths thickly papery, setose   (16)
16 (15) Culm sheaths persistently brown verrucose; leaf blade lateral veins 4- or 5-paired; oral setae well developed.   14 C. armata
+ Culm sheaths persistently black verrucose; leaf blade lateral veins 6–9-paired; oral setae sparse, deciduous.   15 C. tuberculata
17 (12) Leaf blades 1 per ultimate branchlet, with closed sheaths.   16 C. hejiangensis
+ Leaf blades 2–5 per ultimate branchlet, with open sheaths   (18)
18 (17) Culm sheath blade conspicuous, linear-lanceolate, 11–20 mm.   17 C. convoluta
+ Culm sheath blade minute, subulate, less than 8 mm   (19)
19 (18) Young culm internodes and culm sheaths glabrous.   18 C. szechuanensis
+ Young culm internodes tuberculate and hispid, particularly on upper part of culm; culm sheaths glabrous or setose   (20)
20 (19) Culm sheaths pale yellow spotted   (21)
+ Culm sheaths not spotted   (23)
21 (20) Leaf blades narrowly lanceolate to linear, 0.5–1.2 cm wide; culm sheaths with purplish transverse veins.   19 C. angustifolia
+ Leaf blades lanceolate, 1.1–2.1 cm wide   (22)
22 (21) Culm internodes persistently densely white pubescent; sheath scar persistently hairy; leaf blade abaxially glaucous   20 C. utilis
+ Culm internodes initially brown hispid, becoming glabrous; sheath scar brown tomentose, becoming glabrous; leaf blade abaxially dark green.   21 C. pachystachys
23 (20) Culm nodes with sheath scars prominent, densely retrorsely brown setose, bristles ca. 1 mm, supra-nodal ridge strongly prominent.   22 C. metuoensis
+ Culm nodes with glabrous sheath scars   (24)
24 (23) Culm sheaths glabrous or sparsely hispid   (25)
+ Culm sheaths densely bristly   (26)
25 (24) Culm sheaths with conspicuous purplish transverse veins; basal culm internodes 4-angled.   23 C. quadrangularis
+ Culm sheaths with obscure transverse veins; basal culm internodes cylindrical.   24 C. microfloscula
26 (24) Culms to 14 m; basal culm internodes slightly 4-angled; culm sheath blade not articulate; leaves 20–23 × 1.5–2 cm.   25 C. ningnanica
+ Culms to 4 m; basal culm internodes cylindrical; culm sheath blade articulate, deciduous; leaves 30–35 × ca. 2.5 cm.   26 C. grandifolia
27 (11) Leaf sheath oral setae absent   (28)
+ Leaf sheath oral setae numerous, erect   (31)
28 (27) Culm sheaths gradually deciduous; brown verrucose-setose; culm internodes nearly solid.   27 C. verruculosa
+ Culm sheaths soon deciduous; glabrous or sparsely setose; culm internodes hollow   (29)
29 (28) Culms 1–1.6 m, to 0.5 cm in diam.; nodal sheath scars initially densely yellow-brown setose; intranode initially gray or slightly yellow waxy.   28 C. unifolia
+ Culms 2–7 m, 1–5.5 cm in diam.; nodal sheath scars nearly glabrous; intranode not waxy   (30)
30 (29) Branches 3 per node; leaves 1–3 per ultimate branch; leaf blade abaxially glabrous, secondary veins 3- or 4-paired; new shoots Sep.   29 C. rigidula
+ Branches 2 or 3 per node; leaves 1 per ultimate branch; leaf blade abaxially slightly pubescent; secondary veins 4- or 5-paired; new shoots Apr–May.   30 C. opienensis
31 (27) Culm sheath marginally brown hirsute   (32)
+ Culm sheath marginally glabrous or gray ciliate   (33)
32 (31) Culm internodes glabrous; culm sheaths persistent.   31 C. luzhiensis
+ Culm internodes puberulous when young, especially below nodes; culm sheaths gradually deciduous   32 C. puberula
33 (31) Culms 3–7 m; supra-nodal ridge nearly flat at nodes without branches; culm sheaths glabrous.   33 C. communis
+ Culms 1.5–2.8 m; supra-nodal ridge distinctly raised on all nodes; culm sheaths yellow-brown setose at base, margins gray ciliate.   34 C. montigena
34 Culm sheaths persistent; culm internodes glabrous.   31 C. luzhiensis
+ Culm sheaths deciduous; culm internodes puberulous or glabrous   (35)
35 (34) Culm internodes puberulous when young, especially below node; culm sheaths brown setose   32 C. puberula
+ Culm internodes glabrous; culm sheaths glabrous or subglabrous   (36)
36 (35) Culms 3–7 m; 1–3 cm in diam.; supra-nodal ridge only raised on nodes with branches; culm sheaths glabrous.   33 C. communis
+ Culms 1.5–2.8 m; 0.7–1.4 cm in diam.; supra-nodal ridge distinctly raised on every node; culm sheaths yellow-brown setose at base.   34 C. montigena

  • List of lower taxa


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