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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae

150. Chrysanthemum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 887. 1753.

菊属 ju shu

Authors: Zhu Shi, Christopher J. Humphries & Michael G. Gilbert

Arctanthemum (Tzvelev) Tzvelev; Dendranthema (Candolle) Des Moulins; Dendranthema sect. Arctanthemum Tzvelev; Pyrethrum sect. Dendranthema Candolle.

Subshrubs or perennial herbs; indumentum absent or of basifixed or medifixed hairs. Leaves alternate, pinnately or palmately divided, serrate, or rarely entire. Synflorescence a lax irregular terminal cyme, often reduced to solitary capitulum. Capitula heterogamous, radiate, laxly corymbose or solitary. Involucres cup-shaped, rarely campanulate; phyllaries in 4 or 5 rows, scarious margin white, brown, or dark brown, or outer and middle ones herbaceous and pinnatilobed or pinnatifid. Receptacle convex to conical, epaleate. Ray florets female, fertile, in 1 or many rows (in cultivars); lamina yellow, white, or red. Disk florets many, bisexual, fertile; corolla yellow, tubular, 5-lobed. Anther obtuse at base; apical appendage lanceolate-ovate or narrowly elliptic. Achenes subterete or obovoid, faintly 5-8-ribbed. Pappus absent.

Thirty-seven species: mostly in temperate Asia; 22 species (13 endemic) in China.

The florists’ chrysanthemum, 菊花 (ju hua), is an enormous hybrid complex developed over many centuries (a Chinese account published in 1630 listed over 500 cultivars) into the huge array of ornamental cultivars available today. The primary parental species is Chrysanthemum indicum, but the other parentage is now obscure. More recent hardier "Korean chrysanthemums" include C. zawadskii in their parentage. This complex is most widely known as "C. grandiflorum" (Broussonet, Elench. Horti Bot. Monspel. 15. 1805, supposedly based on Anthemis grandiflora Ramatuelle, J. Hist. Nat. 2: 233. 1792), but Broussonet’s name is a nomen nudum with no reference to Ramatuelle’s name; and, even if it were validly published, it would be a later homonym of C. grandiflorum (Desfontaines) Dumont de Courset (Bot. Cult. 2: 467. 1802). The most common alternative name is C. morifolium Ramatuelle (loc. cit.: 240), but this is of uncertain status and identity. Further work is therefore needed to establish the most acceptable scientific name for the complex. As is to be expected for such an important horticultural plant, there is an extensive synonymy, including: A. apiifolia R. Brown, A. artemisiifolia Willdenow, A. stipulacea Moench, C. hortorum L. H. Bailey, ?C. morifolium var. gracile Hemsley, C. sinense Sabine, C. sinense var. hortense Makino ex Matsumura, C. stipulaceum (Moench) W. Wight, Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramatuelle) Kitamura, D. morifolium (Ramatuelle) Tzvelev, D. sinense (Sabine) Des Moulins, and Matricaria morifolia Ramatuelle.

1 Outer and sometimes middle phyllaries herbaceous, pinnatilobed or pinnatifid   (2)
+ Phyllaries with white, brown, or dark scarious margins   (3)
2 (1) Leaves undivided or lyrate-pinnatisect, abaxially grayish white, appressed and thickly villous.   20 C. argyrophyllum
+ Middle and proximal stem leaves bipinnate- or bipalmate-pinnately divided, abaxially green, glabrous or nearly so.   21 C. mongolicum
3 (1) Capitula 0.5-1 cm in diam.; ray floret lamina 1-3 mm   (4)
+ Capitula 1.5-5 cm in diam., rarely smaller; ray floret lamina (1-)5 mm or more   (5)
4 (3) Leaves 2-pinnatisect; capitula many, in dense flat-topped synflorescence.   18 C. glabriusculum
+ Leaves pinnatisect; capitula 1-3.   19 C. dichroum
5 (3) Leaf blade bipalmate, bipalmate-pinnatifid, bipinnatifid, or biternate-pinnatisect   (6)
+ Leaf blade repand-remotely dentate, 1-toothed on each side, or entire, shallowly pinnatifid, or palmately to pinnately 3-7-divided   (14)
6 (5) Ray florets white, pink, or purple-red   (7)
+ Ray florets yellow or apricot-colored   (9)
7 (6) Leaves bipalmate, bipalmate-pinnately divided, or biternate-pinnatisect; capitula solitary, rarely 2-5.   10 C. oreastrum
+ Leaves bipinnatifid; capitula many, in lax cymes, rarely solitary   (8)
8 (7) Primary lobes of leaf blade pinnatilobed or pinnatifid, ultimate lobes triangular or obliquely triangular, ca. 3 mm wide.   16 C. zawadskii
+ Primary lobes of leaf blade pinnatisect or subpinnatisect, ultimate lobes linear or narrowly linear-lanceolate, 1-2 mm wide.   17 C. maximowiczii
9 (6) Capitula solitary, terminal; outer phyllaries 5-7 mm   (10)
+ Capitula several to many, ± cymose; outer phyllaries 2.5-4 mm   (12)
10 (9) Leaves bipalmate, bipalmate-pinnately divided, or biternate-pinnatisect; stems unbranched.   9 C. hypargyreum
+ Leaves 1- or 2-pinnatipartite; stems laxly branched above middle   (11)
11 (10) Capitula 1-1.5 cm in diam., subtending bracts elliptic, 5-7 × 3-4 mm, margins coarsely toothed.   14 C. foliaceum
+ Capitula 2.4-3 cm in diam., subtending bracts linear, 20-25 × 2-5 mm, entire.   15 C. longibracteatum
12 (9) Leaves on both surfaces densely or sparsely pubescent.   11 C. lavandulifolium
+ Leaves adaxially green, sparsely pubescent or glabrescent, abaxially gray-white, densely and thickly pubescent   (13)
13 (12) Outer phyllaries linear or linear-oblanceolate, apex rounded scarious-ampliate, densely pubescent abaxially.   12 C. potentilloides
+ Outer phyllaries ovate or long ovate, apex not rounded scarious-ampliate, sparsely hairy only at base or adaxially.   13 C. arisanense
14 (5) Ray florets yellow.   3 C. indicum
+ Ray florets white, pink, or purple   (15)
15 (14) Ray florets purple; leaf blade ca. 1.5 × 1 cm, shallowly pinnatifid, lateral segments often 2-paired.   22 C. parvifolium
+ Ray florets white or pink, rarely purple; leaf blade not as above   (16)
16 (15) Leaf blade repand-remotely dentate, 1-toothed on each side, or entire, densely and thickly pubescent abaxially   (17)
+ Leaf blade palmately or pinnately 3-7-divided or palmate-pinnately 3-7-divided   (18)
17 (16) Leaves 3.5-7 × 2-4 cm, margin repand-dentate.   1 C. vestitum
+ Leaves 1-1.4 × 0.7-1.5 cm, entire or 1-toothed on each side.   2 C. rhombifolium
18 (16) Rhizome thick and fleshy; achenes not slippery when wet.   6 C. arcticum
+ Rhizome not fleshy; achenes slippery when wet   (19)
19 (18) Capitula 3 or more in irregular cymes (mainland)   (20)
+ Capitula solitary, on peduncles to 20 cm (Taiwan)   (21)
20 (19) Leaf blade reniform, suborbicular, or broadly ovate, base somewhat cordate or truncate.   4 C. chanetii
+ Leaf blade elliptic, narrowly elliptic, or ovate, base cuneate or broadly cuneate.   5 C. naktongense
21 (19) Plants erect; leaf blade pinnately lobed, lobes crenate or dentate; ray floret lamina ca. 6 mm.   7 C. horaimontanum
+ Plants ascending; leaf blade palmately 3- or 5-lobed, lobes subentire; ray floret lamina ca. 15 mm.   8 C. morii

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