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23. Rhizophoraceae

红树科 hong shu ke

Authors: Haining Qin & David E. Boufford

Trees or shrubs, evergreen, without spines, often with aerial roots. Stem nodes swollen. Stipules interpetiolar, sheathing terminal bud, caducous. Leaves simple, opposite or distichous, petiolate; leaf blade leathery, usually glabrous, margin entire, serrulate near apex, or completely serrulate. Inflorescences axillary, dense cymes. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic; hypanthium present [or absent]. Calyx lobes 4-16, inserted on rim of hypanthium, free or scarcely connate a base, valvate, persistent in fruit. Petals usually as many as sepals, free, usually caducous, margin entire, lacerate, or 2-cleft. Stamens twice as many as calyx lobes; anther locules 4 to many, dehiscing longitudinally or by an adaxial valve. Hypogynous disk present or absent. Ovary inferior or half-inferior; carpels 2-5(-20), 2-8-loculed; ovules usually 2 per locule, pendulous; style 1; stigma entire, capitate, or lobed. Fruit pulpy or leathery, indehiscent. Seeds 1 to few, viviparous; seedling (propagule) 7-80 cm when shed (except in Carallia and Pellacalyx).

About 17 genera and 120 species: tropics and subtropics; six genera and 13 species (three endemic) in China.

Ko Wan-cheung. 1983. Rhizophoraceae. In: Fang Wen-pei & Chang Che-yung, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 52(2): 125-143.

1 Trees of inland ecosystems; seeds not germinating while attached to parent plant   (2)
+ Trees or shrubs of coastal mangrove ecosystems; seeds germinating and hypocotyls growing from fruit while attached to parent plant   (3)
2 (1) Stipules twisted, overlapping; free part of calyx divided to base; stamens attached to disk.   5 Carallia
+ Stipules flat, free; free part of calyx tubular, lobed only apically; stamens attached to mouth of calyx tube.   6 Pellacalyx
3 (1) Calyx lobes 4; petals entire, lanceolate; anther locules many, opening by adaxial valve; trunk with stilt roots   1 Rhizophora
+ Calyx lobes 5-16; petals 2-lobed, many-cleft, or with apical appendages; anther locules 4, opening by lengthwise slits; trunk without stilt roots   (4)
4 (3) Calyx lobes 8-16; petals 2-lobed or emarginate.   2 Bruguiera
+ Calyx lobes 5 or 6; petals fringed with apical appendages or many-cleft   (5)
5 (4) Calyx lobes ovate; petals spreading at anthesis; stamens 10-12; hypocotyl ridged.   3 Ceriops
+ Calyx lobes linear-oblong; petals reflexed at anthesis; stamens indefinite; hypocotyl smooth.   4 Kandelia

Lower Taxa


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