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Taxaceae Gray

红豆杉科 hong dou shan ke

Authors: Liguo Fu, Nan Li & Robert R. Mill

Trees or shrubs evergreen, dioecious or rarely monoecious. Leaves spirally arranged or decussate, linear or lanceolate, abaxial surface with 1 stomatal band on each side of prominent or inconspicuous midvein, resin canal present or absent. Pollen cones solitary in leaf or bract axils, or aggregated into spikelike complexes apically on branches; microsporophylls numerous; pollen sacs 3-9, radially arranged or on outer side of microsporophyll and then with distinct adaxial and abaxial surfaces; pollen nonsaccate. Seed-bearing structures solitary or paired in axils of leaves or bracts, pedunculate or sessile, with several overlapping or decussate bracts at base; ovule solitary, borne at apex of floral axis, erect. Seed sessile or pedunculate, drupelike or nutlike, partially enclosed in a succulent, saccate or cupular aril, or completely enclosed within aril; female gametophyte tissue abundant. Cotyledons 2. Germination epigeal, hypogeal in Torreya.

Five genera and 21 species; mainly N hemisphere (except Austrotaxus R. H. Compton: New Caledonia); four genera (one endemic) and 11 species (five endemic, one introduced) in China.

Cheng Wan-chün, Fu Li-kuo & Chu Cheng-de. 1978. Taxaceae. In: Cheng Wan-chün & Fu Li-kuo, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 7: 437-467.

1 Leaves with midvein ± inconspicuous adaxially; pollen sacs borne on outer side of microsporophylls, with distinct adaxial and abaxial surfaces; seed-bearing structures paired in leaf axils, sessile; seed completely enclosed within aril   4 Torreya
+ Leaves with midvein prominent adaxially; axillary; pollen sacs various; seed-bearing structures solitary in axils of leaves or bracts, shortly pedunculate or subsessile; seed surrounded by a cupular or saccate aril, but with distal part exposed.   (2)
2 (1) Leaves decussate, with resin canal; pollen cones arranged in terminal (very rarely lateral) spikes; seed-bearing structures long pedunculate; aril saccate, almost completely enclosing seed except for extreme apex   3 Amentotaxus
+ Leaves spirally arranged, sessile, without resin canal; pollen cones solitary in leaf axils, not forming spikes; seed-bearing structures shortly pedunculate or subsessile; aril cupular, enclosing only proximal part of seed.   (3)
3 (2) Branchlets irregularly alternate; abaxial stomatal bands of leaves pale yellow or pale grayish green; aril of seed red when ripe   1 Taxus
+ Branchlets subopposite or subwhorled; abaxial stomatal bands of leaves white powdery; aril of seed white when ripe   2 Pseudotaxus

Lower Taxa


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