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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 16 | Asclepiadaceae

18. Cynanchum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 212. 1753.

鹅绒藤属 e rong teng shu

Cynanchum otophyllum
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Alexitoxicon Saint-Lager; Antitoxicon Pobedimova; Cyathella Decaisne; Cynoctonum E. H. F. Meyer; Pycnostelma Bunge ex Decaisne; Rhodostegiella C. Y. Wu & D. Z. Li; Seutera H. G. L. Reichenbach; Symphyoglossum Turczaninow; Vincetoxicum N. M. Wolf.

Subshrubs or perennial herbs, erect or twining, often rhizomatous. Roots fibrous, woody or fleshy. Leaves opposite, rarely whorled, often petiolate, axils sometimes with small stipulelike leaves. Inflorescences extra-axillary or occasionally terminal, rarely axillary, umbel-like, corymbose, or racemelike. Sepals erect, often with basal glands. Corolla rotate or subrotate; tube short; lobes patent or reflexed, overlapping to right or left, rarely subvalvate. Corona inserted at base of gynostegium, membranous or fleshy, cupular, cylindric, or deeply 5-divided, sometimes with adaxial appendages. Filaments connate into tube, anthers with membranous apical appendages; pollinia 2 per pollinarium, pendulous. Stigma head convex or short conical. Follicles fusiform or lanceolate, usually smooth, rarely narrowly winged or setose.

About 200 species: Africa, North and South America, Asia, Europe; 57 species in China.


1 Erect herbs, sometimes uppermost parts tending to twine.   (2)
+ Twining climbers.   (23)
       
2 (1) Corona tube cupular to tubular, at least as long as gynostegium, membranous, longitudinally pleated, white or near white.   (3)
+ Corona usually deeply lobed, lobes fleshy, tube (when present) usually much shorter than gynostegium (well developed in C. bicampanulatum), not longitudinally pleated nor grooved, variously colored.   (4)
       
3 (2) Flowers produced after leaves are fully developed; corolla green-white; corona tube as high as gynostegium, marginal lobes linear-triangular; inner appendages well developed, as long as corona lobes; base of leaf blade cordate to truncate   2 Cynanchum anthonyanum
+ Flowers produced before leaves are fully developed; corolla purple; corona tube much higher than gynostegium, marginal lobes very short; inner appendages absent; base of leaf blade rounded to narrowly cuneate   3 Cynanchum purpureum
       
4 (2) Leaf blade ovate, broadly ovate, ovate-oblong, or broadly elliptic.   (5)
+ Leaf blade linear to narrowly elliptic or lanceolate.   (14)
       
5 (4) Leaves (at least lower on stem) amplexicaul; stems and leaves glabrous or nearly so; inflorescences pedunculate   31 Cynanchum amplexicaule
+ Leaves not amplexicaul; stems and leaves often hairy and/or inflorescences sessile.   (6)
       
6 (5) Inner surface of corolla lobes and/or tube hairy.   (7)
+ Inner surface of corolla glabrous, rarely a few hairs inside tube.   (9)
       
7 (6) Corolla lobes erect, slender but with a blunt apex; corolla glabrous except for conspicuously woolly tube   37 Cynanchum rockii
+ Corolla lobes rotate, ovate; corolla indumentum variable but never with a conspicuously woolly tube.   (8)
       
8 (7) Stems flexuous; leaves glaucous, leathery; corona lobes broadly ovate, broader than long   33 Cynanchum canescens
+ Stems erect; leaves green, thin papery; corona lobes triangular-ovate, longer than broad   35 Cynanchum forrestii
       
9 (6) Corolla campanulate, tube as long as lobes, lobes apparently erect; corona tube as long as anthers, adnate to anthers and corolla   36 Cynanchum bicampanulatum
+ Corolla reflexed to shallowly bowl-shaped with spreading lobes; corona tube much shorter than anthers, not adnate to corolla.   (10)
       
10 (9) Corona lobes lanceolate, subacute, clearly higher than gynostegium, each lobe with a well-developed inner appendage incumbent on anther; leaf margin shallowly undulate   26 Cynanchum lysimachioides
+ Corona lobes rounded, not higher than gynostegium, inner appendages not incumbent on anther or absent; leaf margin not undulate.   (11)
       
11 (10) Leaves uniformly densely pubescent on both surfaces; corolla deep purple; inflorescences mostly sessile   32 Cynanchum atratum
+ Leaves pubescent to puberulent on veins only at least on adaxial surface; corolla dull yellow or white; inflorescences pedunculate.   (12)
       
12 (11) Corolla up to 1 cm in diam.; peduncles not longer than leaves   34 Cynanchum inamoenum
+ Corolla 1.2-1.8 cm in diam.; peduncles longer than upper leaves; stems sometimes tending to twine at tip, leaves sometimes whorled.   (13)
       
13 (12) Corolla lobes ca. 3 mm wide; leaves abaxially puberulent on veins only   47 Cynanchum acuminatifolium
+ Corolla lobes 1.2-1.5 mm wide; leaves abaxially densely uniformly puberulent   48 Cynanchum pingshanicum
       
14 (4) Most parts of plant densely puberulent, rarely leaves glabrous; corona with short but distinct tube and inflexed linear-oblong lobes   1 Cynanchum thesioides
+ At least some parts of plant sparsely pubescent to glabrous; corona divided to near base, with ill-defined tube and triangular-ovate, fleshy lobes.   (15)
       
15 (14) Inflorescences strictly lateral, longer than leaves; leaves 1-2 mm wide; corolla lobes oblong-lanceolate; corona deeply 5-lobed   39 Cynanchum wangii
+ Inflorescences terminal and from upper nodes or, if strictly lateral, shorter than leaves; leaves 5-15 mm wide; corolla lobes ovate or ovate-oblong.   (16)
       
16 (15) Peduncles 2.5-4 cm, often subterminal, longer than uppermost leaves; leaf blade with lateral veins ca. 8 pairs; corona lobes laterally compressed   38 Cynanchum paniculatum
+ Peduncles less than 2 cm, much shorter than leaves; leaf blade with lateral veins obscure or up to 6 pairs; corona lobes dorsiventrally compressed.   (17)
       
17 (16) Leaves leathery, glabrous, glaucous.   (18)
+ Leaves membranous to thin papery, often hairy.   (19)
       
18 (17) Stems glabrous; corolla dark red   40 Cynanchum mongolicum
+ Stems pubescent; corolla yellow   41 Cynanchum glaucescens
       
19 (17) Corolla hairy inside; lateral leaf veins ca. 6 pairs.   (20)
+ Corolla glabrous; lateral leaf veins obscure or up to 4 pairs.   (21)
       
20 (19) Leaves always paired, veins glabrous; inflorescences racemelike, slender   46 Cynanchum stauntonii
+ Leaves often whorled, veins puberulent; inflorescences umbel-like   43 Cynanchum hydrophilum
       
21 (19) Corona lobes adnate dorsally to corolla; inflorescences raceme-like   42 Cynanchum stenophyllum
+ Corona lobes free from corolla; leaves often whorled; inflorescences umbel-like.   (22)
       
22 (21) Stems glabrous; leaves 2-9 mm wide   45 Cynanchum riparium
+ Stems pubescent; leaves 7-15 mm wide   44 Cynanchum verticillatum
       
23 (1) Fruit winged or setose.   (24)
+ Fruit not ornamented (not known for several species).   (25)
       
24 (23) Fruit densely and conspicuously setose, not winged   15 Cynanchum corymbosum
+ Fruit smooth, longitudinally winged   19 Cynanchum callialatum
       
25 (23) Corona without inner free-tipped appendages, interior sometimes with longitudinal folds or wings.   (26)
+ Corona with appendages inside, these free at apex.   (45)
       
26 (25) Stems uniformly pubescent, sometimes densely so, basal part often not twining, erect.   (27)
+ Stems glabrescent or pubescent along 1 or 2 lines only.   (31)
       
27 (26) Leaves linear to lanceolate, up to 2.3 cm wide, usually much less, adaxially with tiny pale dots   1 Cynanchum thesioides
+ Leaves narrowly elliptic to ovate, 2.5-10 cm wide, adaxially without dots.   (28)
       
28 (27) Lower part of stem erect, only upper part twining.   (29)
+ Stems twining throughout.   (30)
       
29 (28) Base of leaf blade rounded or subcordate; pedicel up to 5 mm   50 Cynanchum versicolor
+ Base of leaf blade cuneate; pedicel 1-2 cm   52 Cynanchum taihangense
       
30 (28) Pedicel 15-22 mm; corolla lobes ovate; 5-5.5 × ca. 3 mm; sepals glabrous   53 Cynanchum linearisepalum
+ Pedicel 5-13 mm; corolla lobes oblong, ca. 10 × 2.5 mm; sepals pubescent   54 Cynanchum mooreanum
       
31 (26) Corona fleshy, often deeply lobed; leaves concolorous, abaxial surface at most only slightly paler.   (32)
+ Corona membranous, cupular, often with marginal lobes shorter than tube; leaves often discolorous with abaxial surface much paler.   (36)
       
32 (31) Leaf blade linear, 0.5-1 cm wide; corona shallowly lobed, shorter than anthers   49 Cynanchum biondioides
+ desc needed    
       
33 Stems with basal part erect; leaf blade broadly elliptic to ovate, 4-15 cm wide, base cuneate   51 Cynanchum chekiangense
+ Stems always twining from base; leaf blade lanceolate or narrowly oblong, 1.5-5 cm wide, base shallowly cordate to rounded.   (34)
       
34 (33) Corolla purple or purple-red   55 Cynanchum sublanceolatum
+ Corolla white or yellow-white.   (35)
       
35 (34) Lateral leaf veins 4-6 pairs; corolla ca. 7 mm in diam., oblong, glabrous   56 Cynanchum fordii
+ Lateral leaf veins 7-10 pairs; corolla 12-15 mm in diam., lobes lanceolate, pubescent inside   57 Cynanchum volubile
       
36 (31) Corolla lobes hairy; corona tube shorter than prominent lobes.   (37)
+ Corolla lobes glabrous; corona tube longer than lobes, lobes sometimes rounded teeth.   (39)
       
37 (36) Corolla lobes ca. 10 mm; corona cupular, ca. 1 mm high, with 5 triangular marginal lobes to 3 mm high   16 Cynanchum megalanthum
+ Corolla lobes 2-5 mm; corona tube absent, lobes well developed, narrower at base.   (38)
       
38 (37) Leaf blade ovate or ovate-cordate, apex cuspidate, basal lobes incurved and sometimes overlapping; peduncle ca. 1.5 cm; corona lobes shorter than gynostegium, truncate   22 Cynanchum wilfordii
+ Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, apex acuminate, basal lobes not incurved; peduncle to 3.5 cm; inflorescences dense, with flowers overlapping when pressed; corona slightly longer than gynostegium, rounded   23 Cynanchum otophyllum
       
39 (36) Corona ca. ½ as high as anthers; sepals reflexed at anthesis   10 Cynanchum brevicoronatum
+ Corona at least as high as anthers or only slightly shorter; sepals not reflexed.   (40)
       
40 (39) Leaves linear-lanceolate, to 11 × 1.2 cm, base cuneate; corona ca. 2.5 mm high; inflorescences umbel-like   17 Cynanchum kingdonwardii
+ Leaves ovate-oblong, 2-8(-10) cm wide, base cordate; corona ca. 4 mm high; inflorescences racemelike, cymules arranged in regular spiral along rachis.   (41)
       
41 (40) Stems pubescent along 1 line, hairs sometimes very sparse, or in 2 obscure lines immediately above node.   (42)
+ Stems pubescent along 2 lines.   (43)
       
42 (41) Corolla ca. 3 mm; corona tube lower than anthers, marginal teeth prominent, almost acute   12 Cynanchum duclouxii
+ Corolla 3.5-5 mm; corona tube higher than anthers, marginal teeth low and rounded   14 Cynanchum kintungense
       
43 (41) Corolla lobes erect   13 Cynanchum sinoracemosum
+ Corolla lobes rotate to strongly reflexed.   (44)
       
44 (43) Inflorescences to 3.5 cm, subsessile   11 Cynanchum wallichii
+ Inflorescences 2.5-7 cm, peduncle 1-5 cm   15 Cynanchum corymbosum
       
45 (25) Corona deeply 5-divided, lobes fleshy, tube much shorter than gynostegium to absent, lobes erect or ascending.   (46)
+ Corona distinctly cupular or cylindric, usually obviously membranous, sometimes plicate, tube as long as or longer than gynostegium and/or much longer than marginal lobes.   (52)
       
46 (45) Peduncle much longer than pedicel.   (47)
+ Peduncle up to 3(-4) cm, up to 2 × as long as pedicel.   (49)
       
47 (46) Corolla strongly reflexed   30 Cynanchum boudieri
+ Corolla rotate.   (48)
       
48 (47) Corolla lobes 4.5-5 mm, minutely pubescent   28 Cynanchum officinale
+ Corolla lobes (4.5-)5.5-8(-10) mm, densely pilose or villous   29 Cynanchum auriculatum
       
49 (46) Corolla glabrous; leaf blade hastate, hastate-oblong, or narrowly ovate-deltate.   (50)
+ Corolla adaxially puberulent; leaf blade broadly ovate to ovate-oblong.   (51)
       
50 (49) Corona shorter than gynostegium, inner appendages ca. as long as lobes; leaf blade 7-14 × 3-8 cm   24 Cynanchum giraldii
+ Corona longer than gynostegium, inner appendages shorter than lobes; leaf blade 3-8 × 1-5 cm   27 Cynanchum bungei
       
51 (49) Peduncle 1-2 mm, much shorter than pedicel; base of leaf blade auriculate; corolla purple   25 Cynanchum batangense
+ Peduncle 20-30 mm; about as long as pedicel, base of leaf blade shallowly cordate; corolla white   26 Cynanchum lysimachioides
       
52 (45) Leaves pinnately veined, slightly fleshy.   (53)
+ Leaves palmately to pedately 5-7-veined at base, often with enlarged basal lobes.   (55)
       
53 (52) Inflorescences simple, umbel-like; peduncle 1-7 mm; leaf base cordate   19 Cynanchum callialatum
+ Inflorescences racemelike, sometimes branched; peduncle 5-30 mm; leaf base rounded to cuneate.   (54)
       
54 (53) Leaf blade 2.5-7 cm, apex acute or rounded, rarely subacuminate, blade often leathery   20 Cynanchum formosanum
+ Leaf blade 6-10 cm, apex long acuminate or caudate, blade membranous   21 Cynanchum kwangsiense
       
55 (52) Corona lobes or teeth rounded to triangular, often shorter than corona tube, sometimes obsolete.   (56)
+ Corona lobes threadlike to acute triangular, as long as or longer than corona tube.   (59)
       
56 (55) Corolla lobes ca. 10 mm   16 Cynanchum megalanthum
+ Corolla lobes up to 5 mm.   (57)
       
57 (56) Corolla glabrous; corona appendages reduced to small teeth or ridges; leaf blade ovate-deltate, oblong-hastate, lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate, less than 1.5 cm wide   18 Cynanchum insulanum
+ Corolla hairy; corona appendages well developed, fleshy; leaf blade ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2-4 cm wide.   (58)
       
58 (57) Corona shorter than stigma head, lobes very short, rounded; corolla reflexed   9 Cynanchum decipiens
+ Corona longer than stigma head, lobes triangular, acute; corolla erect to rotate   8 Cynanchum longipedunculatum
       
59 (55) Corona lobes longer than corolla; leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, basal sinus very deep, lobes mostly incurved to overlapping   4 Cynanchum heydei
+ Corona lobes shorter than corolla; leaves ovate, deltate-ovate, hastate, or hastate-cordate, basal sinus shallow or, if deep, lobes parallel or divergent.   (60)
       
60 (59) Corolla pubescent inside, lobes lanceolate, 1.5-2 mm wide   5 Cynanchum szechuanense
+ Corolla glabrous inside, lobes oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 1-1.3 mm wide.   (61)
       
61 (60) Corolla erect, purple inside; inner corona appendages included in corona tube; leaf blade hastate or hastate-cordate with enlarged basal lobes, apex long acuminate   6 Cynanchum acutum subsp. sibiricum
+ Corolla rigidly rotate to slightly reflexed, white; inner corona appendages nearly as long as main corona lobes; leaf blade broadly triangular-cordate; apex acute to short acuminate   7 Cynanchum chinense

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