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20. Zingiberaceae Lindley

姜科 jiang ke

Authors: Delin Wu & Kai Larsen

Roscoea alpina

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs perennial, terrestrial, rarely epiphytic, aromatic, with fleshy, tuberous or non-tuberous rhizomes, often with tuber-bearing roots. Stems usually short, replaced by pseudostems formed by leaf sheaths. Leaves distichous, simple, those toward base of plant usually bladeless and reduced to sheaths; leaf sheath open; ligule usually present; petiole present or not, located between leaf blade and sheath, cushionlike in Zingiber; leaf blade suborbicular or lanceolate to narrowly strap-shaped, rolled longitudinally in bud, glabrous or hairy, midvein prominent, lateral veins usually numerous, pinnate, parallel, margin entire. Inflorescence terminal on pseudostems or on separate, short, sheath-covered shoots arising from rhizomes, cylindric or fusiform, sometimes globose, lax to dense, few to many flowered, sometimes with bracteolate cincinni in bract axils and then a thyrse, sometimes a raceme or spike; bracts and bracteoles present, often conspicuous, colored. Flowers bisexual, epigynous, zygomorphic. Calyx usually tubular, thin, split on 1 side, sometimes spathelike, apex 3-toothed or -lobed. Corolla proximally tubular, distally 3-lobed; lobes varying in size and shape. Stamens or staminodes 6, in 2 whorls. Lateral 2 staminodes of outer whorl petaloid, or forming small teeth at base of labellum, or adnate to labellum, or absent. Median staminode of outer whorl always reduced. Labellum formed from lateral 2 staminodes of inner whorl. Fertile stamen median, of inner whorl; filament long or short; anther locules 2, introrse, dehiscing by slits or occasionally pores; connective often extended basally into spurs and/or apically into a crest. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed initially, 1- or 3-loculed when mature; ovules ± numerous per locule; placentation parietal, basal, or axile. Developed style 1, very thin, placed in a furrow in filament and between anther locules; stigma appearing above anther, funnelform, papillose, ± wet, margin often ciliate. Stylodes 2, reduced to nectaries at apex of ovary. Fruit a capsule, fleshy or dry, dehiscent or indehiscent, sometimes berrylike. Seeds few to many, arillate; aril often lobed or lacerate.

About 50 genera and 1300 species: pantropical with center of diversity in S and SE Asia, some species in America and subtropical and warm-temperate Asia; 20 genera (one endemic) and 216 species (141 endemic, four introduced) in China.

Wu Te-lin, Chen Sen-jen, Tsai Hsi-tao, Tong Shao-quan, Chen Pei-shan & Zhao Shi-wang. 1981. Zingiberaceae subfam. Zingiberoideae. In: Wu Te-lin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 16(2): 22--148.


1 Lateral staminodes forming small teeth at base of labellum, or adnate to labellum (forming a 3-lobed structure), or absent.   (2)
+ Lateral staminodes petaloid.   (10)
       
2 (1) Lateral staminodes adnate to labellum forming a 3-lobed structure; style extended well beyond fertile part of anther; anther connective crest elongate, wrapped around style   1 Zingiber
+ Lateral staminodes forming small teeth at base of labellum or absent; style extended just beyond fertile part of anther; anther connective crest (if present) not wrapped around style.   (3)
       
3 (2) Inflorescences terminal or lateral on pseudostems.   (4)
+ Inflorescences on separate shoots arising from rhizomes.   (7)
       
4 (3) Inflorescences lateral, breaking through leaf sheaths   2 Plagiostachys
+ Inflorescences terminal.   (5)
       
5 (4) Labellum horizontal or pendulous, broad; filament usually shorter than corolla or labellum   3 Alpinia
+ Labellum erect, narrow, or absent; filament exserted above corolla.   (6)
       
6 (5) Labellum erect, narrowly spatulate, base adnate to filament; leaf blade subsagittate or cordate at base   4 Pommereschea
+ Labellum absent; filament boat-shaped, apex narrow; leaf blade rounded or acute at apex   5 Rhynchanthus
       
7 (3) Inflorescence not surrounded by a conspicuous involucre of sterile bracts.   (8)
+ Inflorescence surrounded by a conspicuous involucre of sterile bracts.   (9)
       
8 (7) Bracteoles tubular; leaves usually numerous   6 Amomum
+ Bracteoles not tubular; leaves 1 or 2   7 Elettariopsis
       
9 (7) Base of labellum adnate to filament to form a distinct tube above lateral staminodes and corolla lobes; corolla tube shorter than or equaling labellum   8 Etlingera
+ Base of labellum free from filament; corolla tube more than 2 × as long as labellum   9 Hornstedtia
       
10 (1) Ovary 1-loculed, placentation parietal; anther long; labellum adnate to filament to form a slender tube above lateral staminodes and corolla lobes   10 Globba
+ Ovary 3-loculed, placentation axile; anther short; labellum free from filament.   (11)
       
11 (10) Anther with 2 basal spurs.   (12)
+ Anther without basal spurs.   (14)
       
12 (11) Inflorescences conical; bracts connate laterally for ca. 1/2 their length, forming basal pouches, each subtending a cincinnus of 2--7 flowers   11 Curcuma
+ Inflorescences spikelike; bracts not connate, each subtending 1 flower.   (13)
       
13 (12) Ovary and capsule oblong, cylindric, or clavate; capsule late dehiscent; flowers purple or white, rarely yellow   12 Roscoea
+ Ovary and capsule globose; capsule soon dehiscent; flowers yellow or orange   13 Cautleya
       
14 (11) Leaves all basal or on very short pseudostems; inflorescences terminal on pseudostems or on separate shoots arising from rhizomes.   (15)
+ Leaves on conspicuous pseudostems; inflorescences terminal on pseudostems.   (17)
       
15 (14) Labellum strongly concave   14 Boesenbergia
+ Labellum not concave.   (16)
       
16 (15) Inflorescence surrounded by a campanulate involucre   15 Stahlianthus
+ Inflorescence without a campanulate involucre, bracts spirally arranged   16 Kaempferia
       
17 (14) Bracts 1--3 per inflorescence, margin basally adnate to main axis, apex with leaflike extension   17 Pyrgophyllum
+ Bracts 1--10 per inflorescence, rather small or free.   (18)
       
18 (17) Filament very long (rarely very short); anther dorsifixed, apex without appendage   18 Hedychium
+ Filament short; anther basifixed, apex or connective with appendage.   (19)
       
19 (18) Pedicel articulate; capsule cylindric, torulose, 12--13 cm   19 Siliquamomum
+ Pedicel not articulate; capsule ovoid-oblong, not torulose, ca. 1 cm   20 Caulokaempferia

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