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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae

111. Gynura Cassini in F. Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. 34: 391. 1825.

菊三七属 ju san qi shu

Authors: Yilin Chen & Bertil Nordenstam

Gynura japonica

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs, perennial, sometimes subsucculent, rarely subshrubs, glabrous or hispid. Leaves alternate, dentate or pinnately divided, rarely entire, petiolate or sessile. Capitula discoid, homogamous, solitary or few to numerous corymbose. Involucres campanulate or cylindric, with many linear bracteoles at base; phyllaries uniseriate, 9-13, lanceolate, equal, imbricate, with scarious margins. Receptacle flat, areolate or shortly fimbriate. All florets bisexual, fertile; corolla yellow or orange, rarely purplish, tubular, with slender tube and narrowly campanulate limb, lobes 5. Anthers entire or subauriculate at base. Style branches slender, appendages subulate, papillose. Achenes cylindric, 10-ribbed, glabrous or puberulent, truncate at both ends. Pappus white, sericeous.

About 40 species: Africa, Asia, Australia; ten species (one endemic) in China.

Besides the species enumerated below, Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) Candolle (Prodr. 6: 300. 1838), a native of Indonesia, is cultivated in gardens as an ornamental.

1 Roots dilated into tuberiform rhizomes   (2)
+ Roots not dilated, not tuberiform   (3)
2 (1) Scapigerous herbs; flowering stem simple, 20-50 cm tall; leaves crowded at base, rosulate, obovate, spatulate, or elliptic, marginally repand-dentate or pinnatifid; petioles basally not auriculate; capitula 1-5, in lax corymb.   1 G. pseudochina
+ Robust herbs, to 150 cm tall, much branched; stem leaves numerous, lyrate-pinnatipartite to pinnatipartite; petioles basally rounded, with pinnatifid auricles; capitula numerous, corymbose-paniculate.   2 G. japonica
3 (1) Scandent herbs; stems procumbent; leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, apically acute or acuminate, marginally entire or repand-dentate, both surfaces glabrous or sparsely hairy, base of petioles not auriculate; capitula 3-5 in terminal or axillary corymbs.   10 G. procumbens
+ Erect herbs or shrubs   (4)
4 (3) Stem procumbent in lower part   (5)
+ Stem erect or declined at base   (7)
5 (4) Plants and phyllaries densely fulvous tomentose; leaves narrowly elliptic, ovate, or rhombic, margin entire or serrate in upper half, basally cuneate-attenuate into petiole; lateral veins 3-6-paired, both surfaces sparsely or densely shortly hairy.   3 G. nepalensis
+ Plants and phyllaries glabrous or subglabrous   (6)
6 (5) Leaves sessile or subsessile, oblong-elliptic, obovate, or oblong-lanceolate, basally amplexicaul, with broad auricle, margin irregularly sharply serrate, lateral veins 12-30-paired; capitula 4-15, corymbose-paniculate.   5 G. cusimbua
+ Leaves petiolate, obovate or oblanceolate, basally cuneate, narrow, not auriculate, margin repand-dentate, or mucronulate, lateral veins 7-9-paired; capitula numerous, laxly corymbose.   4 G. bicolor
7 (4) Leaves simple, elliptic, marginally entire or laxly denticulate, apex obtuse, base of petiole with incised auricle.   9 G. elliptica
+ Leaves marginally repand-dentate or lyrately pinnately divided   (8)
8 (7) Leaves usually crowded on lower part of stem, petiolate or subsessile, ovate, elliptic, or oblanceolate, veinlets coalescent into suboblong, parallel-reticulate, conspicuous black lines when dry; capitula 3-5 corymbose-paniculate, divaricate.   6 G. divaricata
+ Leaves lax, rarely crowded on stem, elliptic or spatulate, veinlets inconspicuous, not coalescent into black lines when dry; capitula laxly corymbose, not divaricate   (9)
9 (8) Plants hispid; leaves lyrate-ovate, basally attenuate into long petioles, upper or median leaves 1- or 2-denticulate, apically obtuse, both surfaces adpressed pilose; capitula 3, laxly corymbose; peduncles 5-7 cm.   7 G. formosana
+ Plants fulvous pubescent; leaves lyrate-pinnatilobate, 4-12 cm, terminal lobe large, triangular-ovate, apex acuminate, base truncate or cordate, lateral lobes 1- or 2-paired, ovate-oblong, both surfaces fulvous pubescent; capitula 1-3, laxly corymbose; peduncles 1-3 cm.   8 G. barbareifolia

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