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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 13 | Passifloraceae

1. Passiflora Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 955. 1753.

西番莲属 xi fan lian shu

Authors: Yinzheng Wang, Shawn E. Krosnick & Peter Møller Jørgensen

Granadilla Miller; Tripsilina Rafinesque.

Herbaceous or woody perennial vines, rarely shrubs or trees. Leaves simple or rarely compound, alternate (subopposite in one species), entire or dissected, petiolate, usually with extra-floral nectaries on petiole and/or blade; stipules linear to leaflike, often glandular. Inflorescence axillary, cymose; peduncle often highly reduced or absent, central axis developed into a tendril, secondary axes often highly reduced to 1 or 2 flowers; bracts minute to foliaceous, sometimes glandular. Flowers bisexual (rarely plants dioecious). Hypanthium broad to campanulate. Sepals 5, often petaloid, sometimes with a subapical projection. Petals 5 (rarely absent). Corona present at base of perianth in one to several series of showy filaments; innermost series (operculum) membranous, partially to entirely fused, margin entire or fimbriate, often incurved over nectar chamber; extra-staminal nectariferous disk (limen) present around base of androgynophore, fused to base of hypanthium. Stamens (4 or)5(-8); filaments free (rarely connate into a tube around ovary); anthers linear or oblong, dorsifixed, versatile. Ovary on androgynophore, stipitate or sessile, 3(-5)-carpellate; styles 3(-5), free; stigmas capitate. Fruit a berry (rarely a dehiscent capsule). Seeds arillate, compressed, testa pitted; endosperm oily, abundant; embryo straight; cotyledons elliptic or oblong-elliptic; germination epigeal (rarely hypogeal).

About 520 species: mainly in tropical America and tropical Asia; 20 species (seven endemic, seven introduced) in China.

Passiflora "alato-caerulea" (Lindley, Bot. Reg. 10: t. 848. 1824), a hybrid of horticultural origin, is grown in China and elsewhere for its flowers and robust, vigorous vegetative growth. The epithet "alato-caerulea" is considered to be a hybrid formula (i.e., P. alata Curtis × P. caerulea Linnaeus) and not a true epithet (Vienna Code, Art. H.10.3).

The reader is referred to the following references: Killip, The American Species of Passifloraceae (Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 19(1-2): 1-331, 333-613. 1938); de Wilde, A monograph of the genus Adenia Forsk. (Passifloraceae) (Meded. Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 71(18): 1-281. 1971); and de Wilde, The Indigenous Old World Passifloras (Blumea 20: 227-250. 1973 ["1972"]).

1 Bracts not entire, pinnatifid or lacerate   (2)
+ Bracts entire, or caducous, never with glandular hairs   (3)
2 (1) Bracts pinnatifid, lobes apically with glandular hairs; leaves shallowly 3-lobed or entire; flowers 2-3 cm in diam.; petiole without glands.   16 P. foetida
+ Bracts lacerate, not glandular; leaves 3- or 5-lobed, never entire; flowers 3-5 cm; petiole with 2 stipitate glands.   15 P. adenopoda
3 (1) Leaves unlobed, entire   (4)
+ Leaves 2- or 3-lobed or 5-palmatifid   (11)
4 (3) Inflorescence reduced to only one flower; outer corona in 5 or 6 series   (5)
+ Inflorescence of more than one flower; coronal filaments in 1 or 2 series   (6)
5 (4) Stem 4-angled; leaves broadly ovate or suborbicular; stipules large, leaflike, 2-4 cm; petiole with 4-6 glands; fruit ovoid, 20-25 cm.   19 P. quadrangularis
+ Stem terete; leaves ovate-oblong; stipules linear; petiole with 2 glands; fruit globose, 5-6 cm in diam..   20 P. laurifolia
6 (4) Laminar nectaries absent on abaxial surface; petiolar glands 2, small, at middle of petiole; inflorescence 1- or 2-flowered.   4 P. kwangtungensis
+ Laminar nectaries present on abaxial surface; petiolar glands various; inflorescence 2- to many flowered   (7)
7 (6) Leaves broadly ovate to cordate, with 20-50 tiny nectaries scattered on abaxial surface; sepals with apical appendage.   5 P. eberhardtii
+ Leaves ovate-elliptic, broadly lanceolate, linear-lanceolate, or suborbicular, with 2 to many nectaries on abaxial surface; sepals lacking apical appendage   (8)
8 (7) Leaves suborbicular to broadly orbicular; inflorescence 2-8-flowered.   6 P. henryi
+ Leaves linear-lanceolate, broadly lanceolate, or lanceolate to ovate; inflorescence 2-16-flowered   (9)
9 (8) Flowers with 5 stamens and 3 carpels; leaves ovate, subopposite to opposite, abaxially white pubescent.   2 P. cochinchinensis
+ Flowers with variable numbers of stamens and carpels; leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, glabrous or pubescent   (10)
10 (9) Stem and leaves pubescent; leaves oblanceolate, alternate.   1 P. siamica
+ Stem and leaves glabrous; leaves lanceolate, spirally arranged.   3 P. tonkinensis
11 (3) Inflorescences 1-flowered; coronal filaments in 2-6 series   (12)
+ Inflorescences 2-20-flowered; coronal filaments in 1 or 2 series   (13)
12 (11) Leaves (3-)5(-9)-palmatifid, lobes entire; petiole with 2-4(-6) glands; stipules large, reniform, clasping.   18 P. caerulea
+ Leaves deeply 3-lobed, lobes dentate; petiole with 2 glands apically; stipules linear-subulate.   17 P. edulis
13 (11) Laminar nectaries absent on abaxial surface; petals absent; corona in 2 series.   14 P. suberosa
+ Laminar nectaries present on abaxial surface (2-25); petals present; corona in 1 or 2 series   (14)
14 (13) Coronal filaments ca. 1/2 as long as sepals or shorter; leaves truncate, lobes generally equal in length   (15)
+ Coronal filaments more than 1/2 as long as sepals; leaves shallowly to deeply lobed, lobes unequal in length, midvein often conspicuously shortened   (17)
15 (14) Petiole with 2 discoid nectaries at base; laminar nectaries in 2 lines near midvein.   8 P. jianfengensis
+ Petiole with 2 peg-shaped nectaries; laminar nectaries 2-4 on abaxial surface   (16)
16 (15) Plants strongly pubescent throughout; leaf blade often with 2 or 3 pairs of glands near apex of midvein on abaxial surface, apex truncate, usually 3-lobed.   9 P. jugorum
+ Plants glabrous, rarely glabrescent; leaf blade usually with 1 pair of glands near apex of midvein on abaxial surface, apex strongly truncate, usually 2-lobed.   10 P. wilsonii
17 (14) Lobes of leaves apically obtuse; abaxial surface with 6-25 nectaries; sepals with apical appendage.   7 P. cupiformis
+ Lobes of leaves apically acute; abaxial surface with 2-8 nectaries; sepals lacking awn   (18)
18 (17) Inflorescence 5-8-flowered; leaves truncate, lobes ovate-oblong; petiole with 2 conspicuous, auriculate glands.   11 P. papilio
+ Inflorescence 1-16-flowered; leaves deeply truncate; base of leaves lanceolate   (19)
19 (18) Stem striate; leaves and stems pubescent; flowers 2-16 per inflorescence; coronal filaments white throughout.   12 P. altebilobata
+ Stem subtriangular, smooth; leaves and stems glabrous, veins white; flowers 1 or 2 per inflorescence; coronal filaments brown at base, yellow at apex.   13 P. xishuangbannaensis

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