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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 22 | Poaceae

24. Pleioblastus Nakai, J. Arnold Arbor. 6: 145. 1925.

苦竹属 ku zhu shu

Authors: Zheng-de Zhu & Chris Stapleton

Nipponocalamus Nakai; Polyanthus C. H. Hu.

Small, shrubby or arborescent bamboos, spreading and loosely clumped. Rhizomes leptomorph. Culms pluricaespitose, suberect to drooping, 0.5–8 m tall, 0.1–4 cm thick; internodes slightly grooved above branches, glabrous, smooth or rough, pruinose below level nodes. Branch buds tall, prophylls 2-keeled, initially closed at front, on small promontory. Branches erect, initially 1–9 per node, long, subequal, basal nodes compressed, laterals arising from basal nodes, some lateral branches lacking subtending sheaths and replicated, sheaths and prophylls very persistent, papery, ± glabrous. Culm sheaths persistent to very persistent, nearly leathery; blade deciduous, often reflexed. Leaf sheaths persistent; blade small to medium-sized, without substantial winter necrosis of margins, arrangement random or ± distichous, transverse veins distinct. Inflorescence open, racemose to paniculate, branching subtended by very small bracts or hairs, often with pulvini; spikelets exserted on long, delicate pedicels. Spikelets 1–4 cm, disarticulating below florets, with 4–8 florets. Glumes 1 or 2(–5), much shorter than first lemma, delicate, basally loose and usually subtending vestigial buds. Lemma to 1 cm. Anthers 3. Stigmas 3. Fruit a caryopsis.

About 40 species: China, Japan, Vietnam; 17 species (15 endemic, two introduced) in China.

In addition to the species treated below, Pleioblastus albosericeus W. T. Lin (J. S. China Agric. Univ. 11(3): 47. 1990, "albo-sericeus") was described from sterile material from Guangdong (Fogang). In the protologue it was compared with P. intermedius. Pleioblastus angustatus W. T. Lin, (J. Bamboo Res. 13(2): 18. 1994) was described from cultivated material from Guangdong (Guangzhou). In the protologue it was compared with P. amarus. Pleioblastus patellaris W. T. Lin & Z. M. Wu (J. S. China Agric. Univ. 14(3): 113. 1993) was also described from Guangdong and is possibly a species of Indocalamus.

1 Culms short, 0.1–1 m; leaf blades variegated or closely distichous (natives of Japan, introduced in China for ornamental purposes)   (2)
+ Culms to more than 1 m; leaf blades not variegated, separated, not distichous (endemic to China)   (3)
2 (1) Leaf blade 6–15 × 0.8–1.4 cm, both surfaces white pubescent, especially abaxially, with yellow or white stripes.   16 P. fortunei
+ Leaf blade 3–7 × 0.3–0.8 cm, both surfaces glabrous, not striped; culms 20–40 cm.   17 P. distichus
3 (1) Culm sheaths without conspicuous auricles, oral setae absent or scarce and inconspicuous   (4)
+ Culm sheaths with well-developed auricles and oral setae   (11)
4 (3) Culm sheaths ± glossy, usually without setae, hairs, marginal cilia, or powder   (5)
+ Culm sheaths not glossy, ± pruinose, often with setae or marginal cilia   (6)
5 (4) Culm sheaths brown-red, with darker spots, oily-glossy.   1 P. maculatus
+ Culm sheaths green, without spots, ± glossy but not oily.   2 P. oleosus
6 (4) Culm sheath ligules usually truncate, 1–2 mm   (7)
+ Culm sheath ligules ± arcuate, 3–8 mm   (9)
7 (6) Culms initially glabrous but pruinose, culm sheaths glabrous or with sparse setae.   3 P. amarus
+ Culms initially pubescent; culm sheaths setose; leaf blades asymmetrical, especially at base   (8)
8 (7) Culm sheath blades deflexed or revolute; leaves 3 or 4(–8) per ultimate branch.   4 P. intermedius
+ Culm sheath blades erect; leaves 1 or 2 per ultimate branch.   5 P. truncatus
9 (6) Culm sheaths thickly papery or thinly leathery, ligules ca. 3 mm.   6 P. altiligulatus
+ Culm sheaths leathery, setose, ligules 5–8 mm   (10)
10 (9) Culm sheaths without spots, thickly pruinose and with sparse, brown setae, margins distally pink, ligules ca. 5 mm; leaf sheath auricles truncate to vaulted, 1–2.5 mm.   7 P. incarnatus
+ Culm sheaths with brown spots and verrucate setae, margins not pink, ligule ca. 8 mm; leaf sheath auricles triangular, 3–4 mm.   8 P. maculosoides
11 (3) Culm sheaths mainly glabrous, basally piliferous.   9 P. juxianensis
+ Culm sheaths with setae or marginal cilia   (12)
12 (11) Internodes with small cavity or subsolid   (13)
+ Internodes with large cavity   (14)
13 (12) Internodes subsolid, initially strigose and finely ridged; leaf sheath auricles absent; oral setae absent to 3, erect, to 5 mm.   10 P. solidus
+ Internodes with small cavity, initially glabrous, inconspicuously ridged; leaf sheath auricles ovate to elliptical, oral setae radiating, to 13 mm.   11 P. hsienchuensis
14 (12) Culm sheath blades intensely crinkled; internodes ca. 35 cm.   12 P. rugatus
+ Culm sheath blades smooth; internodes to 33 cm   (15)
15 (14) Internodes to 18.5 cm, culm wall ca. 3 mm thick.   13 P. yixingensis
+ Internodes to 33 cm, culm wall 7–8 mm thick   (16)
16 (15) Culm sheath ligule truncate, ca. 1 mm, auricles subcircular or falcate, small, oral setae 3–5 mm.   14 P. wuyishanensis
+ Culm sheath ligule arcuate, ca. 10 mm, auricles oval to elliptical, oral setae ca. 10 mm.   15 P. sanmingensis

  • List of lower taxa


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