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27. Pulsatilla Miller, Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. [1136]. 1754.

白头翁属 bai tou weng shu

Wang Wencai; Bruce Bartholomew

Herbs perennial, often covered with long soft hairs. Rhizome erect. Leaves basal, rosulate; petiole long; leaf blade palmately or odd pinnately divided; veins palmate. Scape with 3 bracts forming a bell-shaped involucre; involucral bracts basally connate and apically ± deeply divided into numerous lobes. Flower solitary, bisexual. Sepals 5 or 6. Petals absent. Stamens numerous, outermost whorl staminodial except in Pulsatilla kostyczewii; anthers yellow or purple, oblong, narrowly ellipsoid, filiform, or linear, with one longitudinal vein. Pistils numerous; ovule 1 per ovary. Styles long linear, pilose, strongly elongated and plumose when mature. Infructescence globose. Achenes small, spindle-shaped, pilose, with a long plumose beak formed by persistent style.

About 33 species: Asia, Europe, North America; 11 species (one endemic) in China.

Although Pulsatilla can easily be distinguished from Anemone by the former having a long, plumose beak on the achenes formed by the persistent style, phylogenetic studies have shown that they are probably congeneric.

1 Anthers purple; staminodes not present; all but ultimate leaf blade segments and lobes stipitate; ultimate leaf blade segments ca. 0.5 mm wide   1 P. kostyczewii
+ Anthers yellow; staminodes present; not all leaf blade segments and lobes stipitate; ultimate leaf blade segments greater than 0.5 mm wide (may be only 0.5 mm wide in P. tenuiloba and P. sukaczevii but segments not all stipitate).   (2)
2 (1) Leaf blade odd pinnate with (3 or)4--6 pairs of lateral leaflets.   (3)
+ Leaf blade 3-foliolate but may appear to be odd pinnate with 2 or 3 pairs of lateral leaflets if terminal leaflet and/or central segment of terminal leaflet stipitate.   (6)
3 (2) Leaf blade consistently 3 × pinnately divided; persistent style of achenes 3--3.5 cm.   (4)
+ Leaf blade 2 or 3 × pinnately divided; persistent style of achenes 2--2.8 cm.   (5)
4 (3) Leaf blade with (3 or)4 pairs of lateral leaflets; involucral bracts 2.8--3.4 cm, tube 5--6 mm; sepals blue-violet, rarely white, 2.2--4.2 cm   8 P. turczaninovii
+ Leaf blade with 6 pairs of lateral leaflets; involucral bracts 0.9--2.2 cm, tube 2--2.5 mm; sepals pale yellowish green, yellow, or reddish purple, 0.9--2 cm   11 P. millefolium
5 (3) Leaf blade with 5 or 6 pairs of lateral leaflets; sepals violet   9 P. tenuiloba
+ Leaf blade with 4 pairs of lateral leaflets; sepals yellow or sometimes white   10 P. sukaczevii
6 (2) Leaf blade distinctly 3-foliolate, palmately divided   5 P. patens
+ Leaf blade 3-foliolate, but appearing to be odd pinnate with 1--3 pairs of lateral leaflets.   (7)
7 (6) Leaf blade 3-foliolate with 1(or 2) pairs of lateral leaflets; leaflet lobes slightly divided, terminal lobe obovate, not stipitate; flowers erect before anthesis   2 P. chinensis
+ Leaf blade 3-foliolate and odd pinnately divided with 2 or 3 pairs of lateral pinnate leaflets; leaflet lobes deeply divided, terminal lobe sometimes stipitate; flowers nodding before anthesis.   (8)
8 (7) Leaves not fully expanded at anthesis; sepals purplish red to dark purple   3 P. cernua
+ Leaves mostly fully expanded at anthesis; sepals various shades of blue, violet, or lilac.   (9)
9 (8) Ultimate leaf blade lobes (1.5--)2--4 mm wide; involucral bracts (3--)4--5 cm; sepals pale lilac to pale bluish violet; persistent style (4--)5--6 cm in fruits, slender and softly plumose   4 P. dahurica
+ Ultimate leaf blade lobes to 1 cm wide; involucral bracts 1.5--2.5 cm; persistent style 1.5--3 cm in fruit, stiff, bristly pilose.   (10)
10 (9) Rhizome 5--8 mm in diam.; sepals dark violet, 2.2--2.8 cm; persistent style 2.5--3 cm   6 P. ambigua
+ Rhizome 2.5--4 mm in diam.; sepals blue-violet to lilac, 1.4--1.9 cm; persistent style 1--2.4 cm   7 P. campanella

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