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6. Rhaphidophora Hasskarl, Flora. 25(Beibl. 2): 11. 1842.

崖角藤属 ya jiao teng shu

Authors: Heng Li & Peter C. Boyce

Lianas, large; raphides numerous on stem and leaf; laticiferous ducts absent. Stems thick, creeping and climbing up trees or over rocks by aid of adhesive roots. Leaves distichous, petiolate; pulvinus short or long; petiole often adaxially grooved or canaliculate, sheath extending to pulvinus; leaf blade entire or divided, or perforate, thinly to rather thickly leathery, pinnately veined. Inflorescences terminal on leafy shoots, solitary or sometimes in a fascicle (synflorescence); as synflorescence develops axis sometimes reiterating and overtopping synflorescence such that inflorescence cluster is displaced and appears to be produced laterally (here termed "appearing axillary"). Spathe not constricted, initially inrolled and tubular, afterward spreading, firm, mostly early caducous, rarely marcescent. Stalk of spadix short or absent; spadix cylindric. Flowers many, bisexual or sometimes a few male, naked. Stamens 4; anthers much shorter than filaments, dehiscent by a slit. Ovary 1- or incompletely 2-loculed, 2- to many ovuled; ovules basal or parietal, 1- or 2-seriate; style broadly conic; stigma circular to linear, in latter case longitudinally inserted. Fruit with stylar plate sloughing away in groups or singularly to reveal ovary cavity with seeds embedded in pulp, many seeded. Seeds small, oblong to reniform.

About 120 species: tropical Asia, Australia, tropical W Pacific; 12 species (two endemic) in China.

1 Leaf blade entire   (2)
+ Leaf blade pinnatifid   (7)
2 (1) Leaf blade very large, more than 30 cm wide   (3)
+ Leaf blade smaller, usually less than 15 cm wide   (4)
3 (2) Spadix obovoid-cylindric or ellipsoid, narrowing to base, 4.5-5.5 × 1.5-1.75 cm; inflorescences pendent; innovations puberulent; leaf midrib minutely pubescent abaxially.   3 R. hookeri
+ Spadix cylindric, 18-25 × 2-3 cm; inflorescences erect; innovations glabrous; leaf midrib glabrous.   4 R. megaphylla
4 (2) Leaf blade oblong or obliquely oblong, obtuse at base, 15-24 × 5-9 cm.   2 R. liukiuensis
+ Leaf blade falcate-lanceolate or falcate-elliptic   (5)
5 (4) Leaf blade narrowly cuneate at base; spathe green outside; spadix narrowing toward apex.   5 R. hongkongensis
+ Leaf blade rounded at base; spathe orange or pale yellow outside; spadix narrower and longer, cylindric   (6)
6 (5) Spathe orange on both surfaces, light yellow inside at base, light green outside at center immediately after opening (green color soon disappearing); spadix ca. 2/3 of spathe length; leaf blade thickly papery.   1 R. lancifolia
+ Spathe dull orange outside, dull yellow to dull orange inside; spadix more than 4/5 of spathe length; leaf blade subleathery.   6 R. peepla
7 (1) Style conspicuous; leaf blade very large, ovate-oblong, pinnae many, 6 or 7(-15) on each side   (8)
+ Style obscure   (9)
8 (7) Foliage leaves scattered and interspersed with several (up to 7) cataphyll-bearing nodes; feeding roots corky and smooth; perforations absent, leaf blade 60-70 × 40-50 cm.   12 R. decursiva
+ Leaf arrangement not as above; feeding roots densely scaly; large perforations usually present along midrib, leaf blade 30-55 × 22-36 cm.   11 R. crassicaulis
9 (7) Leaf blade less than 35 × 30 cm, with a few pinnae   (10)
+ Leaf blade longer than 37 cm; pinnae with 3-5 subequal, parallel costae   (11)
10 (9) Leaf blade broadly ovate, pinnatisect, ca. 35 × 25-30 cm, pinnae 3 or 4 on each side, sinuses almost reaching midrib; spadix long and thin, 15-18 × ca. 0.5 cm when dry.   8 R. laichauensis
+ Leaf blade ovate, pinnatifid, and at least some leaf blades on mature branches entire, 17-25 × 5-12 cm, pinnae 2 or 3 on each side, or only on 1 side and other side entire, sinuses reaching to 2-3 cm from midrib; spadix shorter, 12-13 × 0.8-1 cm.   7 R. luchunensis
11 (9) Pinnae 2-5 per side; spadix shorter than 9 cm.   9 R. glauca
+ Pinnae 6-9 per side; spadix ca. 10 cm.   10 R. dulongensis

  • List of lower taxa


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