1. Eremopyrum orientale (Linnaeus) Jaubert & Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3. 14: 361. 1851.
东方旱麦草 dong fang han mai cao
Secale orientale Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 84. 1753; Agropyron orientale (Linnaeus) Roemer & Schultes; Costia orientalis (Linnaeus) Willkomm; Triticum orientale (Linnaeus) M. Bieberstein (1808), not Percival (1921).
Culms geniculate at nodes, 8–25 cm tall, usually 3-noded, pubescent below spike. Leaf sheath scabrous and puberulent on lower leaves, glabrous and slightly inflated on upper leaves; leaf blade green, flat, 2–5 × 0.2–0.4 cm, both surfaces pubescent, adaxial surface also shortly pilose along veins. Spike ellipsoid-ovoid, 1.5–3 × 0.8–1.6(–1.8) cm. Spikelets green, 9–14 mm, with 3–5 florets, villous. Glumes linear-lanceolate, laterally strongly compressed, asymmetric, contorted, nearly as long as spikelet including awns, keeled, with 2 or 3 distinct lateral veins, apex long acuminate with awn 4–6 mm. Lemma lanceolate, pubescent, apex gradually tapering to scabrous awn 4–5 mm; first lemma 6–7 mm excluding awn. Palea slightly shorter than or equaling lemma, sparsely shortly ciliate along keels; keels prolonged into 2 short, blunt teeth. Fl. and fr. Apr–May.
Wooded steppes, dry barren slopes, sands; 500–1600 m. Nei Mongol, Xinjiang, Xizang [Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; Mediterranean region].
This is an excellent spring pasture grass for all kinds of animals.