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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae


紫菀族 zi wan zu

Authors: Yilin Chen, Yousheng Chen, Luc Brouillet & John C. Semple

Herbs, perennial, sometimes annual or biennial, subshrubs, or shrubs, sometimes lianas [or trees]. Leaves usually alternate, simple, margin entire, serrate, dentate, or pinnatisect, rarely pinnately lobed. Capitula radiate, sometimes disciform or rarely discoid. Phyllaries many, 1-5-seriate, imbricate or ± equal, herbaceous, membranous or subleathery, margins ± narrowly scarious. Receptacles flat or convex, sometimes hemispheric or conic, or rarely cup-shaped, alveolate or smooth, epaleate or rarely paleate. Ray florets 1 to numerous, 1(-3)-seriate, female, laminate or finely subulate, lamina yellow, rarely orange or reddish to brownish, or white to pink, blue, or purple, apex sometimes 2- or 3-toothed, sometimes multiseriate, with reduced lamina or elaminate, reduced to tube; disk florets bisexual or functionally male, yellow or rarely white, limb cylindric, funnelform, or campanulate; anther base obtuse, rarely caudate, apical appendage ovate to lanceolate; style branches with 2 adaxial stigmatic lines, apical appendages lanceolate to triangular, abaxially pilose, adaxially glabrous. Achenes cylindric, oblong, obovoid, or oblanceoloid, not blackened, usually ribbed or veined. Pappus 1-4-seriate, of barbed or barbellate, rarely long-barbed, fine or coarse bristles, sometimes of setae or scales (all or outermost series), or absent.

About 225 genera and 3,100 species: worldwide, especially in temperate areas of both hemispheres; 30 genera (three endemic, two introduced) and 237 species (112 endemic, 13 introduced) in China; one additional species (Conyza stricta) is of uncertain position.

1 Capitula disciform or discoid   (2)
+ Capitula radiate   (17)
2 (1) Capitula globose to rounded or oblong; involucres patelliform or hemispheric; receptacles globose to hemispheric or obconic, often swollen, or cup- or funnel-shaped peripherally, convex centrally, rarely flat or convex (Thespis); pappus absent or coroniform, rarely of 6-13 short, coarse bristles (Thespis); herbs annual, rarely perennial   (3)
+ Capitula cup-shaped; involucres hemispheric or campanulate to turbinate or cylindric; receptacles flat or ± convex, or hemispheric-flattened or hemispheric-conic to lenticular-knobby; pappus of bristles (usually numerous, usually long); herbs perennial or annual, sometimes woody vines   (7)
3 (2) Marginal floret corolla minutely tubular or absent; pappus of 6-13 short, coarse bristles; receptacles flat or convex; leaves unlobed.   120 Thespis
+ Marginal floret corolla with filiform tube and/or lamina present; pappus absent or coroniform; receptacles globose to hemispheric or obconic, often swollen, or cup- or funnel-shaped peripherally, convex centrally; leaves often lyrately lobed or lobed, sometimes unlobed   (4)
4 (3) Herbs prostrate; involucres patelliform   (5)
+ Herbs erect; involucres hemispheric   (6)
5 (4) Marginal female florets cylindric-linear, funnel-shaped, or ovoid to urceolate, 2- or 3-lobed; disk florets functionally male; synflorescences racemiform or paniculiform, rarely solitary capitula.   116 Dichrocephala
+ Marginal female florets tubular, outer 2-lobed, inner 3- or 4-lobed; disk florets bisexual; synflorescences solitary capitula or laxly corymbiform.   118 Grangea
6 (4) Leaves pinnatifid or pinnatisect; receptacles cup-shaped or funnel-shaped peripherally (female), slightly convex centrally (disk); marginal female floret lamina none (outer) or short, narrowly funnelform (inner), 2-lobed, purple; disk florets 5-lobed; achenes oblong to ± fusiform, not ribbed.   117 Cyathocline
+ Leaves sometimes lyrate, sometimes lobed, or not lobed; receptacles convex, hemispheric or globose; ray floret lamina small, rounded, ovate or linear, white to purplish; disk florets 4-lobed; achenes narrowly obovoid, 2-ribbed.   119 Myriactis
7 (2) Capitula discoid   (8)
+ Capitula disciform   (10)
8 (7) Achenes obovoid; leaves eglandular (or sometimes stipitate glandular); capitula solitary at ends of branches, sometimes forming open paniculate-corymbiform synflorescences; disk floret lobes unequal.   139 Aster
+ Achenes oblong or lanceolate; leaves gland-dotted or not; capitula in dense or loose corymbiform synflorescences, rarely solitary; disk floret lobes equal   (9)
9 (8) Involucres broadly obconic to campanulate or hemispheric, phyllaries 1-3-veined; leaves sometimes 3-veined; rhizomes robust.   125 Galatella
+ Involucres shortly cylindric or sometimes obconic, phyllary midvein ± distinct; leaves 1-veined; rhizomes slender.   126 Crinitina
10 (7) Woody vines, climbing; achenes angled, 3-ribbed.   122 Microglossa
+ Herbs perennial or annual, climbing or erect; achenes compressed, flattened or cylindric, 2-4- or more ribbed or many veined (if 3-ribbed and angled then usually on ray only and disk achenes 2-ribbed)   (11)
11 (10) Capitula solitary or 2-4-fascicled at ends of branches, shortly pedunculate or sessile; disk corolla lobes unequal, outer 2 longer; herbs perennial, climbing or erect.   134 Heteroplexis
+ Capitula terminal, solitary or few, or in racemiform, paniculiform, or corymbiform synflorescences, pedunculate; disk corolla lobes equal; herbs perennial or annual, erect   (12)
12 (11) Herbs annual, eglandular, glabrous (leaf margin ciliate).   144 Symphyotrichum
+ Herbs annual or perennial, glandular (sometimes eglandular), hairy   (13)
13 (12) Involucres urceolate or subcylindric.   141 Erigeron
+ Involucres campanulate to hemispheric-campanulate   (14)
14 (13) Disk florets functionally male (sterile); phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate.   135 Psychrogeton
+ Disk florets bisexual (fertile); phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate   (15)
15 (14) Phyllaries subequal; disk floret limb shortly funnelform; achenes oblanceolate, flattened.   136 Neobrachyactis
+ Phyllaries imbricate (unequal); disk floret limb funnelform; achenes oblong, compressed   (16)
16 (15) Female florets elaminate; pappus 1-seriate; synflorescences corymbiform, sometimes glomerate, glomerate-paniculiform, or paniculiform.   121 Eschenbachia
+ Female florets laminate, lamina short, filiform; pappus ± 2-seriate, outer very short, slender; synflorescences densely compound-corymbiform (see species incertae sedis after Eschenbachia).  

Conyza stricta

17 (1) Ray floret lamina yellow, orange, red, or brownish   (18)
+ Ray floret lamina white, pink, purple, or blue   (23)
18 (17) Small shrubs; pappus 3-seriate, outermost of 6 broad scales, inner (absent in disk florets) of flattened bristles, innermost of strongly clavate bristles; leaf blade pinnatilobed; receptacles fimbriate.   133 Formania
+ Herbs perennial, sometimes biennial or annual, or subshrubs; pappus 1-3-seriate, outer few short bristles or scales, inner series of bristles, innermost sometimes ± clavate, or only short scales; leaf blade subpinnatifid or unlobed; receptacles naked   (19)
19 (18) Disk florets functionally male (sterile)   (20)
+ Disk florets bisexual (fertile)   (21)
20 (19) Capitula ± large; phyllaries unequal to equal; herbage sometimes or partly long white lanate or cottony; achenes 8-10-veined; pappus bristles long barbellate.   115 Nannoglottis
+ Capitula medium-sized to small; phyllaries imbricate; herbage white tomentose to lanate, sessile to short-stipitate glandular; achenes 2-ribbed; pappus bristles barbellate.   135 Psychrogeton
21 (19) Plants resinous; phyllaries looped or hooked; pappus of few deciduous scales or awns.   143 Grindelia
+ Plants not resinous; phyllaries ± appressed; pappus 1-3-seriate, outer few short bristles or scales, inner series of bristles   (22)
22 (21) Capitula numerous in terminal racemiform, paniculiform, or corymbose-paniculiform synflorescences; achenes obconic to cylindric, sometimes ± compressed, 8-10-veined.   140 Solidago
+ Capitula solitary; achenes oblong, compressed, 2(-4)-veined.   141 Erigeron
23 (17) Pappus absent (that of disk sometimes 1-seriate short scales in Aster)   (24)
+ Pappus present (rarely absent on ray achene only in Erigeron)   (27)
24 (23) Herbs scapiform, leaves basal, sometimes rosulate   (25)
+ Herbs erect, leaves basal (often withered at anthesis) and cauline   (26)
25 (24) Phyllaries leaflike; receptacles swollen or conic; involucres hemispheric or broadly campanulate; ray florets 1-seriate; disk florets bisexual (fertile), numerous; achenes not beaked, strigillose.   123 Bellis
+ Phyllaries membranous; receptacles flat or convex; involucres campanulate; ray florets 3- or 4-seriate; disk florets functionally male (sterile), few; achenes shortly beaked, apically glandular.   130 Lagenophora
26 (24) Herbs biennial (winter annual); ray florets 3; disk florets few, functionally male (sterile); disk achene pappus absent; ray achenes 3-ribbed.   137 Sheareria
+ Herbs perennial; ray florets numerous; disk florets numerous, bisexual (fertile); disk achene pappus absent or 1-seriate short scales; achenes 2-5- or more ribbed.   139 Aster
27 (23) Pappus 1-seriate, of caducous, barbellate, spiniform bristles; disk florets functionally male (sterile); achenes 3-ribbed, slightly winged.   131 Calotis
+ Pappus 1-4-seriate, of persistent (deciduous in Callistephus) barbellate bristles; disk florets bisexual (fertile); achenes 2- to many ribbed, not winged   (28)
28 (27) Outer phyllaries large, leaflike, inner scarious; pappus 3-seriate, outermost of persistent, short scales, inner 2 of deciduous bristles.   132 Callistephus
+ Outer phyllaries leaflike (not large) or membranous, inner membranous; pappus 1-4-seriate, outermost of short setae or sometimes scales, inner of persistent (sometimes deciduous) bristles   (29)
29 (28) Ray florets sterile; achene ribs indistinct; leaf blades often gland-dotted.   125 Galatella
+ Ray florets female, fertile; achene ribs distinct; leaf blades eglandular or sessile or stipitate glandular (not gland-dotted)   (30)
30 (29) Subshrubs, strongly branched; leaf margins often revolute; phyllaries leathery.   127 Asterothamnus
+ Herbs perennial, biennial, or annual; leaf margins flat (rarely revolute); phyllaries membranous or leaflike   (31)
31 (30) Pappus conspicuously elongating after anthesis; herbs annual.   124 Tripolium
+ Pappus not elongating after anthesis; herbs perennial, sometimes annual or biennial   (32)
32 (31) Leaves basal, linear; achenes slightly veined, densely sericeous, eglandular; capitula solitary.   128 Arctogeron
+ Leaves basal and cauline (sometimes reduced, then basal not linear); achenes ribbed or veined, glabrous or sparsely to densely strigillose, glandular or eglandular; capitula in synflorescences or solitary   (33)
33 (32) Achenes 7-10-veined; stems ascending, villous, eglandular.   142 Eurybia
+ Achenes 2-6-ribbed or -veined; stems usually erect, sometimes prostrate, glabrous or hairy, glandular or eglandular   (34)
34 (33) Disk corollas ± zygomorphic (1 lobe deeper)   (35)
+ Disk corollas actinomorphic   (36)
35 (34) Herbs perennial, caespitose; basal leaves numerous (persistent); receptacle shallowly alveolate, naked.   138 Rhinactinidia
+ Herbs perennial, biennial, or annual, not caespitose, or rarely shrubs; basal leaves withered by anthesis; receptacle alveolate, fimbriate.   139 Aster
36 (34) Capitula small, numerous in dense corymbiform synflorescences; stems densely glandular; disk corolla limb shortly funnelform; achenes ovoid   129 Turczaninovia
+ Capitula small or medium-sized, solitary or few to numerous in corymbiform, racemiform, or paniculiform synflorescences; stems ± glandular or eglandular; disk corolla limb cylindric to funnelform or campanulate; achenes oblong or obovoid to oblanceoloid   (37)
37 (36) Disk floret limb cylindric to narrowly funnelform; phyllary midvein reddish or orange.   141 Erigeron
+ Disk floret limb campanulate to funnelform; phyllary midvein not reddish or orange   (38)
38 (37) Herbs perennial, sometimes annual, biennial, or shrubs, glandular or eglandular, glabrous or hairy; involucres hemispheric to campanulate, sometimes obconic; capitula solitary or in corymbiform, sometimes paniculiform synflorescences; achenes oblong or obovoid, compressed, 2-4(-7)-ribbed, glandular or eglandular.   139 Aster
+ Herbs perennial or annual, eglandular, glabrous (except distally in lines); involucres campanulate or cylindric; capitula in paniculiform synflorescences; achenes oblanceoloid, ± compressed, 2-6-veined, eglandular.   144 Symphyotrichum

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