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23. Poaceae Tribe CYNODONTEAE

虎尾草族 hu wei cao zu

Authors: Bi-xing Sun, Shou-liang Chen, Zhen-lan Wu & Sylvia M. Phillips

Annual or perennial herbs. Leaf blades linear to ovate; ligule a short membrane with ciliate or ciliolate margin. Inflorescence composed of racemes; racemes solitary, digitate or scattered along an axis, tough, unilateral (bilateral and axis fragile in Lepturus), persistent, or sometimes racemes very short, contracted into a cylindrical spikelike inflorescence and falling entire from main axis, or spikelets borne directly on main axis. Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, with or without additional sterile florets, disarticulating above glumes but not between florets or falling entire; glumes herbaceous, 1–3-veined (5–12-veined in Lepturus), shorter than floret or exceeding and enclosing it, sometimes lower glume absent; lemma membranous to leathery, keeled or rounded, 1–3-veined, lateral veins near margins and often ciliate, apex entire or 2–3(–5)-lobed, awned or awnless. Caryopsis sometimes with free pericarp. Leaf anatomy: Kranz PS type; microhairs short and stout. x = 9, 10.

About 60 genera: throughout the tropics and subtropics, extending into North America; 12 genera (three introduced) and 27 species (six introduced) in China.

1 Spikelets sunk in cavities of rachis; rachis fragile; inflorescence a single bilateral raceme.   141 Lepturus
+ Spikelets not in cavities; rachis tough; inflorescence not a single bilateral raceme   (2)
2 (1) Inflorescences unisexual, plant monoecious or dioecious; female inflorescence a tough globular burr in inflated upper leaf sheaths.   149 Buchloe
+ Inflorescences bisexual, all alike   (3)
3 (2) Inflorescence cylindrical; racemes very short, borne along central axis, deciduous, or deciduous spikelets borne singly   (4)
+ Inflorescence not cylindrical; racemes digitate, scattered or solitary, persistent or rarely deciduous   (6)
4 (3) Spikelets with long flexuous awns.   152 Perotis
+ Spikelets awnless or mucronate   (5)
5 (4) Spikelets 2 or more on short racemelets; glume with rows of hooked spines.   150 Tragus
+ Spikelets borne singly on the central axis; glume smooth, glossy.   151 Zoysia
6 (3) Racemes borne along an axis   (7)
+ Racemes digitate, subdigitate or solitary   (8)
7 (6) Lemma 3-awned; sterile floret and rachilla extension present.   148 Bouteloua
+ Lemma acute; sterile floret and rachilla extension absent.   147 Spartina
8 (6) Fertile floret solitary   (9)
+ Fertile floret accompanied by male or sterile florets   (10)
9 (8) Raceme solitary; glumes longer than and enclosing floret.   145 Microchloa
+ Racemes digitate; glumes shorter than the exposed floret.   146 Cynodon
10 (8) Spikelets dark brown; upper glume with stout subapical awn.   144 Eustachys
+ Spikelets pallid or purplish; upper glume at most with fine mucro   (11)
11 (10) Lemma keeled, caryopsis subterete.   142 Chloris
+ Lemma back flat, caryopsis dorsally compressed.   143 Enteropogon

  • List of lower taxa


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