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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 10 | Fabaceae


菜豆族 cai dou zu

Authors: Ren Sa, Delin Wu, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Hang Sun, Puhua Huang, Michael G. Gilbert, Mats Thulin, C. Melanie Wilmot-Dear & Hiroyoshi Ohashi

Herbs, erect, twining, or prostrate, rarely trees. Leaves pulvinate, usually pinnately 3-foliolate, rarely 1- or 5-7-foliolate; leaflets entire or lobed, sometimes gland-dotted; stipules and stipels present. Inflorescence mostly axillary, racemelike, with fascicles of flowers scattered along an axis, sometimes reduced to solitary flowers or expanded into panicles, often with swollen nodes; bracts usually small, very caducous, rarely densely imbricate. Calyx 4- or 5-toothed, rarely truncate. Corolla papilionaceous; petals normal or keel long beaked or spirally twisted. Stamens diadelphous (9+1); vexillary filament usually free, or partly or completely connate with others into an adaxially split sheath; anthers usually uniform. Ovary with 1 to many ovules; style bearded lengthwise on adaxial side, or pilose only around stigma. Legumes 2-valved, partitioned or not between seeds, but not jointed. Seeds strophiolate or not.

About 90 genera and ca. 1,570 species: throughout the tropics and warm-temperate regions of the world, more numerous in drier regions; 37 genera (seven introduced) and 169 species (43 endemic, 15 introduced) in China.

Modern investigations strongly suggest that the Phaseoleae in the traditional sense as followed here is not natural with some genera, including Canavalia, Galactia, and Ophrestia in this account, which are more closely related to the Millettieae and Abreae than to the other genera in the tribe and with the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae embedded within the Phaseoleae proper (Schrire in Lewis et al., Legumes World, 393-394. 2005).

Physostigma venenosum Balfour, native to tropical W Africa, is cultivated in China.

This tribe includes species of great importance as food plants, cover crops, forage, green manure, ornamentals, medicine, dyes, etc.

1 Leaflets abaxially and calyx generally with colored sessile glands; bracteoles absent; inflorescence nodes not swollen, 1-flowered (subtribe Cajaninae)   (2)
+ Leaflets and calyx without glands; bracteoles often present; inflorescence nodes often swollen, bearing more than 1 flower   (6)
2 (1) Legumes 3- or more seeded   (3)
+ Legumes 1- or 2-seeded   (4)
3 (2) Legumes not depressed between seeds.   93 Dunbaria
+ Legumes depressed between seeds.   94 Cajanus
4 (2) Leaves 1-foliolate; seeds with funicle attached at end of linear hilum.   92 Eriosema
+ Leaves 3-foliolate, or simple (not 1-foliolate); seeds with funicle attached at middle of hilum   (5)
5 (4) Twining herbs or shrublets; leaves clearly pinnately 3-foliolate; legumes compressed.   91 Rhynchosia
+ Erect shrubs or prostrate herbs (F. procumbens); leaves apparently digitately 3-foliolate or simple; legumes turgid.   95 Flemingia
6 (1) Style flattened, thickened or twisted, mostly bearded, if not bearded and terete, then standard and keels with minute appendages; hilum usually covered with spongy strophiole (subtribe Phaseolinae)   (7)
+ Style generally terete and unbearded (sometimes a few hairs below stigma), occasionally coiled (in Erythrininae), sometimes bearded or flattened (in Clitoriinae); hilum rarely covered with spongy tissue (some Erythrina excepted)   (14)
7 (6) Style flattened laterally.   110 Lablab
+ Style terete or flattened dorsiventrally   (8)
8 (7) Hooked hairs present on vegetative parts.   115 Phaseolus
+ Hooked hairs absent   (9)
9 (8) Petal wings longer than standard; style twice ca. 90° incurved.   114 Macroptilium
+ Petal wings shorter than standard; style various but not as above   (10)
10 (9) Legumes 4-winged.   98 Psophocarpus
+ Legumes not 4-winged   (11)
11 (10) Stigma lateral or oblique; stipules produced below point of attachment (except in V. adenantha).   113 Vigna
+ Stigma terminal; stipules not produced below point of attachment   (12)
12 (11) Standard appendages absent; corolla purple-blue.   97 Dysolobium
+ Standard appendages present; corolla white, violet, or yellowish   (13)
13 (12) Standard appendages short; corolla white or violet.   111 Dolichos
+ Standard appendages long and narrow; corolla yellowish.   112 Macrotyloma
14 (6) Flowers generally resupinate; calyx naked inside; style narrowed, penicillate or bearded distally; corolla often hairy; leaflets 1, 3, or 5-9, with minute hooked hairs (subtribe Clitoriinae)   (15)
+ Flowers not resupinate, or if resupinate then differing from above in other respects   (16)
15 (14) Standard without spur on back.   82 Clitoria
+ Standard with a conspicuous spur on back.   83 Centrosema
16 (14) Standard silky hairy outside, rather small, without appendages inside; seeds smooth, with a prominent aril; inflorescence not or only slightly nodose (subtribe Ophrestiinae).   81 Ophrestia
+ Standard glabrous, or if hairy then inflorescence generally nodose or flowers much modified   (17)
17 (16) Flowers mostly adapted to birds or bats for pollination, petals generally unequal in length, sometimes with small bee-type flowers but then either coiled (Apios, Cochlianthus) or flowers in extensive panicles and legume samaroid (Spatholobus) (subtribe Erythrininae)   (18)
+ Flowers mostly adapted to bees for pollination, or if bird-type flowers then petals subequal in length   (23)
18 (17) Trees or shrubs; stems with prickles; keels much shorter than standard.   96 Erythrina
+ Climbers, rarely trees (Butea monosperma); stems without prickles; keels usually largest petals   (19)
19 (18) Style spirally coiled   (20)
+ Style not spirally coiled   (21)
20 (19) Leaves (3 or)5- or 7(or 9)-foliolate, green when dried.   84 Apios
+ Leaves 3-foliolate, black when dried.   85 Cochlianthus
21 (19) Legume with many seeds, 2-valved; irritant hairs usually present.   88 Mucuna
+ Legume samaroid with 1 apical seed, empty below; irritant hairs absent   (22)
22 (21) Flowers purple, rose, or white, 0.5-1 cm.   89 Spatholobus
+ Flowers yellow to scarlet, 1.5-8 cm.   90 Butea
23 (17) Inflorescences generally with nodes swollen; seeds diverse, with short to long hilum (subtribe Diocleinae)   (24)
+ Inflorescences with nodes not or only slightly swollen; seeds smooth or granular, with short hilum (subtribe Glycininae)   (27)
24 (23) Stigma lateral to subterminal; ovary hirsute, hairs extending up style, forming a false beard.   100 Pachyrhizus
+ Stigma terminal; style naked   (25)
25 (24) Calyx 2-lipped, upper lip large, entire or 2-lobed, lower lip small; stamens monadelphous; legumes ligulate to oblong.   79 Canavalia
+ Calyx not strongly 2-lipped; stamens diadelphous; legumes linear   (26)
26 (25) Upper calyx lobes completely united (calyx appearing 4-lobed).   80 Galactia
+ Upper calyx lobes ± separate (calyx 5-lobed).   99 Calopogonium
27 (23) Legumes indehiscent   (28)
+ Legumes dehiscent   (29)
28 (27) Bracts caducous; fruit many seeded; seeds with filiform funicle.   87 Mastersia
+ Bracts enlarging after anthesis, leaflike, boat-shaped; fruit 1-seeded; seeds without filiform funicle.   109 Phylacium
29 (27) Anthers alternately small and sterile or large and fertile; legume with persistent style forming a hook.   107 Teramnus
+ Anthers all similar, fertile; legume without hooked style   (30)
30 (29) Stems strongly 4-angled, angles with descending brown hairs; flowers 5-7 mm.   101 Teyleria
+ Stems not strongly 4-angled, angles without brown hairs; flowers mostly longer than 7 mm   (31)
31 (30) Leaves 1-foliolate.   104 Nogra
+ Leaves 3-foliolate   (32)
32 (31) Claws of wings and keel longer than blade; seeds smooth, without a scarious strophiole; ovary walls often transparent   (33)
+ Claws of wings and keel shorter than blade; seeds usually rough; hilum often with a scarious strophiole; ovary walls opaque   (35)
33 (32) Calyx truncate, lobes ± obsolete; flowers yellow.   102 Dumasia
+ Calyx lobes distinct, triangular; flowers usually red-purple, purple, blue, or white, never yellow   (34)
34 (33) Legumes septate between seeds; bracteoles present; bracts rather large and persistent.   86 Shuteria
+ Legumes not septate; bracteoles absent.   106 Amphicarpaea
35 (32) Flowers 2 or more per node of inflorescence.   103 Pueraria
+ Flowers 1 per node of inflorescence   (36)
36 (35) Flowers 12 mm or more.   105 Sinodolichos
+ Flowers 9 mm or less.   108 Glycine

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