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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae


矢车菊亚族 shi che ju ya zu

Authors: Zhu Shi & Ludwig Martins

Herbs or subshrubs, annual, biennial, or perennial. Stems and leaves usually unarmed. Capitula homogamous or heterogamous; if capitula heterogamous then outer florets in 1 row, tubular, often enlarged and radiant, sterile or rarely female; inner florets in many rows, bisexual. Receptacle with dense whitish linear smooth setae. Corolla tube slender. Achene with or without an apical rim, glabrous or rarely hairy; attachment scar usually lateral. Pappus usually double (i.e., differentiated into 2 types of pappus elements); outer pappus elements bristlelike, usually in many rows and increasing in length from outermost to inner; inner pappus elements scalelike or bristlelike but wider than outer ones; or pappus simple and all pappus elements bristlelike or scalelike, rarely absent.

About 29 genera and ca. 750 species: mainly in N Africa, C and SW Asia, and Europe, with a few in tropical Africa, tropical and E Asia, Australia, and North and South America; 16 genera (one endemic, two introduced) and 37 species (two endemic, four introduced) in China.

1 Capitula homogamous; all florets bisexual   (2)
+ Capitula heterogamous; outer florets female or sterile, inner florets bisexual   (9)
2 (1) Middle phyllaries apically rounded, with a narrow hyaline margin or with a scarious appendage   (3)
+ Middle phyllaries apically acute or acuminate, without an appendage or with a simple spine, spinule, or subulate tip   (4)
3 (2) Involucre 3-6 cm in diam., or if involucre smaller then pappus elements pinnate at apex and persistent.   35 Rhaponticum
+ Involucre 1-2.5 cm in diam. and pappus elements serrulate and easily falling off.   41 Plagiobasis
4 (2) Outer phyllaries leaflike or with a leaflike appendage.   48 Carthamus
+ All phyllaries ± leathery and without a leaflike appendage but often apicalmost leaves approximate to capitulum   (5)
5 (4) Annuals; pappus elements of two types (i.e., innermost bristle or bristles wider and longer than others)   (6)
+ Perennials; pappus elements all ± of one type   (7)
6 (5) Middle phyllaries with an apical spinule; stems mostly branched from base and branches procumbent or ascending.   36 Oligochaeta
+ Middle phyllaries without apical spinule; stems erect and branched only in apical part.   42 Russowia
7 (5) Middle phyllaries 0.5-1 mm wide, subulate or narrowly ovate, apex attenuate into long subulate tip.   39 Tricholepis
+ Middle phyllaries 1-6 mm wide, narrowly triangular or narrowly ovate, apex with or without a short apical spinule   (8)
8 (7) Stem virgately branched, terminal branches densely foliate up to capitulum.   38 Archiserratula
+ Stem simple or branched, terminal branches sparsely foliate or leafless.   37 Klasea
9 (1) Outer and middle phyllaries with a fimbriate, spiny, scarious, or hyaline appendage   (10)
+ Outer and middle phyllaries without an appendage but sometimes with a spinule and/or hyaline margin   (13)
10 (9) Appendage of middle phyllaries fimbriate, long decurrent almost to base; bisexual florets violet-blue.   49 Cyanus
+ Appendage of middle phyllaries fimbriate, lacerate, or entire, not or only shortly decurrent; bisexual florets purple, pink, white, or yellow   (11)
11 (10) Leaves densely tomentose especially on abaxial side.   46 Psephellus
+ Leaves glabrous or with various pubescence types but not densely tomentose   (12)
12 (11) Leaf blade margin argutely toothed; longitudinal striae of middle phyllaries conspicuous.   45 Rhaponticoides
+ Leaf blade margin entire, coarsely dentate, or spinose; longitudinal striae of middle phyllaries inconspicuous or lacking.   50 Centaurea
13 (9) Apex of middle phyllaries broadly rounded   (14)
+ Apex of middle phyllaries acute or acuminate   (16)
14 (13) Pappus elements scalelike; plants annual or biennial.   40 Amberboa
+ Pappus elements bristlelike; plants perennial   (15)
15 (14) Corolla pink to purplish; leaf blade undivided but margin serrate.   41 Plagiobasis
+ Corolla yellow to yellowish; leaf blade pinnatisect, pinnate, or bipinnatisect.   45 Rhaponticoides
16 (13) Perennials; phyllaries lanate or velvety.   44 Serratula
+ Annuals; phyllaries glabrous or subglabrous   (17)
17 (16) Leaf blade margin spiny; dwarf plants less than 20 cm tall.   43 Schischkinia
+ Leaf blade margin serrate-dentate, not spiny; erect plants 20-60 cm tall.   47 Crupina

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