36. Bromus secalinus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 76. 1753.
黑麦状雀麦 hei mai zhuang que mai
Avena secalina (Linnaeus) Salisbury; Bromus mollis Linnaeus var. secalinus (Linnaeus) Hudson; Forasaccus secali-nus (Linnaeus) Bubani; Serrafalcus secalinus (Linnaeus) Babington.
Annual. Culms stout, erect, 30–60(–100) cm tall. Leaf sheaths usually glabrous; leaf blades 5–15 cm × 3–6 mm, pubescent; ligule 1–2 mm. Panicle lax, 5–15 × 2–6 cm, oblique, nodding; branches subwhorled, up to 8 cm, each bearing 1–4 spikelets. Spikelets narrowly oblong, 15–20 × 6–8 mm, florets 5–15, not overlapping at maturity; rachilla internodes exposed; glumes subequal, firm, veins inconspicuous, scabrid, lower glume 4–5 mm, 3–5-veined, upper glume 6–7 mm, 7-veined, apex obtuse, mucronate; lemmas elliptic, 8–9 × 4–5 mm in side view, herbaceous, 7-veined, glabrous, margins inrolled, apex obtuse, awned from back below apex; awn 5–7 mm, shorter than lemma body, slightly reflexed; palea as long as or slightly shorter than lemma. Anthers ca. 2 mm. Caryopsis ca. 5 × 1 mm, longitudinally inrolled, brownish red. Fl. and fr. May–Aug. 2n = 28.
Slopes, grassy places; 500–1500 m. Gansu, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang [Japan, Russia; SW Asia, Europe; introduced in America].
This species is adventive in many temperate countries as a field weed.