14. Dicranodontium Bruch & Schimp. in B. S. G., Bryol. Eur. 1: 157 (fas. 41. Mon. 1). 1847.
Dicranum subg. Dicranodontium (Bruch & Schimp.) Kindb., Eur. N. Amer. Bryin. 2: 186. 1897. Dicranum sect. Dicranodontium (Bruch & Schimp.) C. Müll., Gen. Musc. Frond. 277. 1900.
Plants small to large, yellowish brown to dark green, often shiny, in soft tufts. Stems erect, simple, sometimes sparsely branched, more or less radiculose below; central strand present or only weakly developed to absent. Leaves erect-flexuose to secund, lance-subulate, more or less deciduous, gradually or abruptly narrowed from a broad, somewhat auriculate base to a linear, subulate to setaceous acumen; margins often involute, subentire to serrulate below, clearly serrate above; costa broad at base, occupying ca. 1/3 – ½ the leaf base width, filling most of the subula, excurrent, often roughened or serrate at back above, with 2 stereid bands in transverse section; upper cells rectangular to linear, smooth or papillose because of projecting cells’ ends; lower cells broader close to the costa, narrower near the margins, forming a few marginal rows; alar cells usually sharply differentiated, inflated, hyaline to brownish. Dioicous or rarely autoicous. Perichaetial leaves not notably differentiated. Setae single, slender and elongate, erect-sinuose when dry, strongly curved to cygneous when moist; capsules long-exserted, erect, symmetric, oblong-cylindric, smooth when dry; opercula long-rostrate; annuli absent; peristome teeth 16, inserted slightly below the mouth, divided or perforate nearly to the base, vertically striate nearly throughout. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth, entire at base. Spores spherical, yellowish, finely papillose.
Dicranodontium consists of about 39 species in the world, with most species distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. Frahm (1997) recently revised the genus and reduced the number of species in Dicranodontium to 7. Eight species are known from China, with 2 species that were not treated by Frahm (1997).