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Pakistan | Family List | Convolvulaceae

7. Ipomoea Linn., Sp. Pl. 159. 1753. Choisy in DC., Prodr. 9:348.1845, Benth., Fl. Austr. 4:412.1869, Clarke in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4:196.1883, Hall. f., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16:582.1893, Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 3:210.1895, van Ooststroom in Blumea 3:482.1940, Verdcourt in Hubbard & Milne-Redhead, Fl. Trop. E. Afr. 81.1963, Austin in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62:189.1975.


Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA

Ipomoea pes-caprae

Credit: M.Y. Saleem

  • Batatas Choisy
  • Calonyction Choisy
  • Exogonium Choisy
  • Pharbitis Choisy
  • Quamoclit Moench

    Climbers, shrubs or trees, usually twining but sometimes prostrate or floating. Leaves variable in shape and size, entire, lobed or divided or rarely compound. Flowers mostly in axillary, 1-to many-flowered dichasia, rarely paniculate. Sepals herbaceous to subcoriaceous, glabrous or pubescent. Corolla regular or slightly zygomorphic, mostly funnel-shaped or campanulate,less often tubular or salverform. Fruit globose or ovoid, capsules mostly 4-valved. Seeds glabrous to pubescent.

    This is the largest genus-complex in the family with about 500 species distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of both the hemispheres. Since the group is complex, numerous interpretations of the taxa have been presented, see for example: Hallier f., in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16:583.1893, van Ooststroom, in Blumea 3:482.1940, Verde. l.c., Austin, Taxon 24:107.1975 & Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62:189.1975. About 20 species have been reported from Pakistan.

    Species Dubia

    Ipomoea sagittata sensu Rechinger, Fl. Iran. 2:23.1963, non Poir. 1789, R.R. Stewart, l.c. 577.

    This record is based on a collection by Blatter et al. 393 from Baluchistan. I have not been able to f ind this collection and thus cannot be certain of the identity of the plant. The habitat is entirely wrong for Ipomoea sagittata and I suspect the plants were actually Ipomoea sepiaria Roxb. 1824.

    Ipomoea rumicifolia Choisy in Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 6:446.1834, Choisy DC., l.c. 351, Clarke in Hook. f., l.c. 207, R.R. Stewart, l.c. 577.

    Choisy based this in part on Wallich 2254(G-DC) from India. Stewart included it in Pakistan’s flora on the basis of Jafri 2552 (K) which I have not found. The species is reported from tropical E. Africa (Stewart, l.c. 577, Clarke, l.c. 207, but I did not f ind it in Verdcourt, Fl. Trop. E. Africa 1963).

    Species To Be Expected

    Ipomoea obscura (Linn.) Ker-Gawl., Bot. Reg. 3. t. 239.1817. Convolvulus obscures Linn., Sp. Pl. ed. 2.2.1762.

    This species with ovate-cordate leaves and white to yellow flowers with dark purple centre is found from E. Africa to India and Malaysia and is to be expected in the Central and Southern regions of Pakistan.

    1 Corolla salverform, the long narrow tube only slightly wider near or above the middle, abruptly flaring near the summit. Anthers exserted. Flowers opening during night and closing in early morning (white or lavender scarlet flowers) or open most of the day (red or scarlet flowers)   (2)
    + Corolla funnel-shaped to campanulate, the short to long tube expanding from below the middle, gradually or abruptly flaring near the summit. Anthers mostly included. Open during morning, closing near noon   (6)
    2 (1) Corolla 2-5 cm long, red to orange or yellowish (rarely white). Flowers open during most of day   (3)
    + Corolla 6-16 cm long, the limb or tube white or lavender. Flowers opening during night and closing in early morning   (5)
    3 (2) Leaf blades divided more than halfway to the midrib and appearing pinnately compound, the segments linear   15 Ipomoea quamoclit
    + Leaf blades divided less than halfway to the mid-rib, appearing pinnately or palmately lobed, the segments mostly lanceolate   (4)
    4 (3) Sepals 5-8 mm long   16 Ipomoea x multifida
    + Sepals 1.5-3 mm long   8 Ipomoea hederifolia
    5 (2) Flower tube 9-15 mm long. Fruit 2-3 cm long   1 Ipomoea alba
    + Flower tube 3-6 mm long. Fruit 1.8-2 cm long   18 Ipomoea turbinata
    6 (1) Glabrous perennials with procumbent stems, not normally twining. Leaves fleshy or leathery. Se-pals elliptic-oblong to orbicular. Habitat of coastal dunes and beaches or inland waterway margins or cultivated wetlands   (7)
    + Glabrous or pubescent annuals or perennials with twining or erect stems, not usually rooting at the nodes (except in I. batatas). Leaves chartaceous to fleshy. Sepals acuminate to suborbicular. Habitat various   (8)
    7 (6) Flowers white, with light or dark throat inside tube. Leaves sagittate   2 Ipomoea aquatica
    + Flowers pink, lavender or purple. Leaves sub-orbicular to suborbicular-oblong, apically emarginate   12 Ipomoea pes-caprae
    8 (6) Sepals herbaceous. Sepals, peduncles and pedi-cels with reflexed or erect trichomes (except I. indica). Stigmas with 3 lobes (rarely 2), ovary 3-4-locular (rarely 2-locular). Corolla blue, red or white or inflorescence sub-capitate or bracteate   (9)
    + Sepals coriaceous or membranaceous, rarely herbaceous. Sepals, peduncles and pedicels glabrous or at least without reflexed trichomes. Stigmas with 2 lobes, ovary 2-locular. Corolla mostly lavender, sometimes blue or white, the inflorescences rarely bracteate   (14)
    9 (8) Corolla 5-7 cm long. Sepals soft-pubescent out side with slender trichomes or rarely glabrous   10 Ipomoea indica
    + Corolla mostly less than 5 cm long. Sepals hispid pilose outside with long spreading trichomes   (10)
    10 (9) Leaves deeply palmately 7-9-lobed, the lobes cut almost to the blade base   13 Ipomoea pes-tigridis
    + Leaves entire, toothed or shallowly 3-lobed, the lobes cut less than halfway to the blade base   (11)
    11 (10) Flowers in sub-capitate to capitate inflorescences, occasionally involucrate or bracteate. Corolla 0.7-3 cm long   7 Ipomoea eriocarpa
    + Flowers solitary or in open cymose inflorescences. Corolla 4-8 cm long   (12)
    12 (11) Sepals with slightly narrowed green tips, shorter to slightly longer than the body   14 Ipomoea purpurea
    + Sepals with very narrow elongate green tips, much longer than the body   (13)
    13 (12) Sepal tips erect or slightly curved   11 Ipomoea nil
    + Sepal tips curved to one side, at least when plants are in fruit   9 Ipomoea hederacea
    14 (8) Shrubs, woody. Seeds comose, atleast on margins   6 Ipomoea cornea ssp. fistulosa
    + Climbers, herbaceous. Seeds glabrous or densely shortly pubescent   (15)
    15 (14) Leaves densely white-cottony pubescent below. Corolla 1.2-1.7(-2) cm long   3 Ipomoea arachnosperma
    + Leaves glabrous to very sparsely pubescent below. Corolla mostly over 3 cm long   (16)
    16 (15) Leaves palmately divided to the base. Pseudo-stipules present   5 Ipomoea cairica
    + Leaves entire or lobed but not palmately divided to the base. Pseudo-stipules absent   (17)
    17 (16) Margins of sepals scarious. Flowers blue   17 Ipomoea tricolor
    + Margins of sepals not obviously scarious. Flowers lavender   4 Ipomoea batatas

  • List of lower taxa


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