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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 25 | Orchidaceae

142. Bulbophyllum Thouars, Hist. Orchid., Tabl. Esp. 3. 1822.

石豆兰属 shi dou lan shu

Authors: Xinqi Chen & Jaap J. Vermeulen

Phyllorkis Thouars.

Herbs, epiphytic. Rhizome usually rather long, creeping or hanging, usually bearing a series of pseudobulbs, very rarely without pseudobulbs. Pseudobulbs well spaced to clustered on rhizome, each with a single joint. Leaves 1 or rarely 2 or 3, arising from apex of pseudobulbs or very rarely directly from rhizome; leaf blade usually leathery, varying in size. Scape arising laterally from base of a pseudobulb or from a node of rhizome; inflorescence usually racemose or umbellate, 1- to many flowered; floral bracts often small. Flowers small to large. Sepals subequal in size or lateral sepals much longer than dorsal one; lateral sepals free or ± connate on lower or upper edges, base adnate to column foot forming a short mentum. Petals free, usually smaller than sepals; lip often hinged to end of column foot, mobile or sometimes immobile, usually fleshy and recurved. Column short, winged, base with a distinct foot; wings often dilated to form teeth or stelidia; anther 2-locular, sometimes 1-locular; pollinia 4, in 2 pairs, waxy, without appendages, sometimes attached to sticky substance.

About 1,900 species: largely in tropical areas of both Old and New Worlds; 103 species (33 endemic) in 18 sections in China.

Bulbophyllum formosanum (Rolfe) K. Nakajima (Biol. Mag. Okinawa 10: 36. 1973; Cirrhopetalum formosanum Rolfe, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1914: 372. 1914), described from Taiwan, is a doubtful species. The original description by Rolfe is quite different from that by Seidenfaden (Dansk Bot. Ark. 29(1): 172, fig. 85. 1974), who published the combination B. formosanum a year later than Nakajima. An examination of the specimen Seidenfaden cited as type (Price 1043, K), which lacks flowers, indicated that its vegetative characteristics are identical with Seidenfaden’s figure rather than with Rolfe’s description, which seems to refer to another species. Further study is needed.

Also see LI Lin, YE Deping & XING Fuwu. 2009. Additions to the genus Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) from China. Bull. Bot. Res. 29(3): 260-263 which was published after the Flora of China treatment.

After publication of the treatment for the Flora of China, one species was newly recorded from China (see JIN Xiao-Hua et al. 2010. Acta Bot. Yunnan. 32: 331-333, i.e., Bulbophyllum gyrochilum Seidenf.).


Key to sections

1 Pseudobulbs 2-leaved   (2)
+ Pseudobulbs, or shoot tip if pseudobulbs inconspicuous, 1-leaved   (3)
       
2 (1) Lateral sepals 2-5 × as long as dorsal sepal.   17 B. sect. Tripudianthes (p. 438)
+ Lateral sepals ca. as long as dorsal sepal or slightly longer.   18 B. sect. Pleiophylla (p. 438)
       
3 (1) All inflorescences 1-flowered   (4)
+ Racemose inflorescences (i.e., with 2 or more flowers) present   (12)
       
4 (3) Petals 5- or more veined   (5)
+ Petals 1-3-veined   (7)
       
5 (4) Dorsal sepal ciliate or denticulate.   13 B. "Section 13" (63. B. bicolor, 69. B. chinense; p. 427)
+ Dorsal sepal glabrous   (6)
       
6 (5) Node at base of pedicel at least 1.5 × width of pedicel above subtending bract.   2 B. sect. Sestochilos (p. 409)
+ Node at base of pedicel coinciding with bract attachment, or removed from it less than 1 × width of pedicel.   1 B. sect. Leopardina (p. 406)
       
7 (4) New shoots arising well away from basal node of pseudobulb; pseudobulbs distinctly present.   5 B. sect. Macrocaulia (p. 415)
+ New shoots arising from base of pseudobulb; or pseudobulbs minute, inconspicuous compared to size of plant   (8)
       
8 (7) Lateral sepals ca. 2 × as long as dorsal sepal.   13 B. "Section 13" (64. B. omerandrum; p. 427)
+ Lateral sepals ca. as long as or slightly longer than dorsal sepal   (9)
       
9 (8) Basal node of pedicel well above attachment of floral bract   (10)
+ Basal node of pedicel level with attachment of floral bract   (11)
       
10 (9) Rhizome creeping, roots spreading; petals without appendages.   7 B. sect. Monanthaparva (p. 416)
+ Rhizome pendulous, roots growing over it toward point of attachment to substrate; petals with appendages.   3 B. sect. Epicranthes (p. 410)
       
11 (9) Pseudobulbs distinctly present.   6 B. sect. Monanthes (p. 416)
+ Pseudobulbs absent or minute, inconspicuous compared to size of plant.   16 B. sect. Stachysanthes (p. 436)
       
12 (3) Petals 5- or more veined   (13)
+ Petals 1-3-veined   (15)
       
13 (12) Dorsal sepal ciliate or denticulate.   13 B. "Section 13" (63. B. bicolor, 69. B. chinense; p. 427)
+ Dorsal sepal glabrous   (14)
       
14 (13) Lateral sepals twisted inward near base so that upper margins are turned toward one another.   12 B. sect. Umbellata (56. B. umbellatum; p. 422)
+ Lateral sepals not twisted inward near base.   1 B. sect. Leopardina (p. 406)
       
15 (12) Lip with small auricles well above base   (16)
+ Lip without auricles well above base, or with retrorse auricles immediately next to ligament   (17)
       
16 (15) Raceme elongated, or raceme congested and floral bracts longer than pedicel plus ovary.   9 B. sect. Anisopetalon (p. 418)
+ Raceme subumbellate, floral bracts shorter than pedicel plus ovary.   14 B. sect. Cirrhopetalum (72. B. picturatum; p. 430)
       
17 (15) Petal margins glabrous   (18)
+ Petal margins (irregularly) denticulate, serrate, ciliate, fimbriate, or with glandular appendages   (24)
       
18 (17) Pseudobulbs inconspicuous, or very small compared to size of plant   (19)
+ Pseudobulbs distinctly present   (21)
       
19 (18) Inflorescence 2- or 3-flowered.   16 B. sect. Stachysanthes (p. 436)
+ Inflorescence 5- or more flowered   (20)
       
20 (19) Raceme congested, subumbellate.   12 B. sect. Umbellata (p. 422)
+ Raceme elongated.   16 B. sect. Stachysanthes (92. B. apodum; p. 436)
       
21 (18) Lateral sepals twisted inward near base so that upper margins are turned toward one another; upper margins fused or free; or lateral sepals ca. 8 mm wide   (22)
+ Lateral sepals not twisted inward near base, free, ± spreading; lateral sepals 1-3 mm wide   (23)
       
22 (21) Lateral sepals fused along their upper margins; or lateral sepals free, and petals 4-7 mm.   12 B. sect. Umbellata (p. 422)
+ Lateral sepals free; petals ca. 2 mm.   4 B. sect. Corymbosa (20. B. ledungense; p. 411)
       
23 (21) Stelidia deltoid to subulate, rounded to acuminate, not twisted inward.   4 B. sect. Corymbosa (p. 411)
+ Stelidia clavate (?spatulate), twisted inward.   12 B. sect. Umbellata (46. B. macraei; p. 422)
       
24 (17) Raceme congested, flowers all radiating from ± same point, arranged in an umbel   (25)
+ Raceme elongate   (27)
       
25 (24) Dorsal sepal glabrous with a terminal thread ending in a widened palea, or dorsal sepal ciliate.   14 B. sect. Cirrhopetalum (p. 430)
+ Dorsal sepal glabrous without a terminal thread ending in a palea, or dorsal sepal papillose, denticulate, erose, or with glandular appendages   (26)
       
26 (25) Lateral sepals twisted inward near base so that upper margins are turned toward one another; upper margins fused or free.   13 B. "Section 13" (p. 427)
+ Lateral sepals diverging, not twisted inward.   8 B. "Section 8" (30. B. levinei; p. 417)
       
27 (24) Dorsal sepal ciliate   (28)
+ Dorsal sepal glabrous   (29)
       
28 (27) Lip with minute, retrorse auricles at its base, immediately next to ligament.   10 B. sect. Hirtula (p. 419)
+ Lip without auricles at its base.   8 B. "Section 8" (32. B. insulsoides; p. 417)
       
29 (27) Inflorescence 2- or 3-flowered.   13 B. "Section 13" (64. B. omerandrum; p. 427)
+ Inflorescence 5- or more flowered   (30)
       
30 (29) Raceme lax, flowers spaced, scattered   (31)
+ Raceme dense, flowers arranged in a ± regular pattern   (32)
       
31 (30) Column foot elongate, causing a gap between petals and lateral sepals.   11 B. sect. Altisceptrum (p. 421)
+ Column foot not elongate, petals and lateral sepals partly overlapping.   8 B. "Section 8" (31. B. eublepharum; p. 417)
       
32 (30) Stelidia without a tooth along lower margin.   9 B. sect. Anisopetalon (33. B. brevispicatum; p. 418)
+ Stelidia with a distinct tooth along lower margin.   15 B. sect. Brachystachya (91. B. repens; p. 435)

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