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15. Meliaceae

楝科 lian ke

Authors: Hua Peng, David J. Mabberley, Caroline M. Pannell, Jennifer M. Edmonds & Bruce Bartholomew

Trees, shrubs, or sometimes shrublets, monopodial or sympodial, usually dioecious, less often monoecious or polygamo- dioecious. Stipules absent. Leaves in spirals, very rarely opposite, usually pinnate; leaflets opposite, subopposite, or alternate; leaflet blades with base somewhat oblique, margin usually entire or rarely lobed or serrate. Flowers usually in axillary thyrses, rarely racemose or spicate. Calyx small, 3-6-lobed or with distinct sepals, usually cup-shaped or tubular, imbricate or valvate in bud. Corolla contorted or imbricate, sometimes quincuncial. Petals (3 or)4 or 5(or 6), rarely more, distinct or connate, sometimes adnate to staminal tube and then valvate. Stamens 3-10 or more, hypogynous, mostly with a staminal tube (distinct stamens in Cedrela and Toona); anthers usually sessile on stamen tube, erect, included or exserted, 2-celled, longitudinally dehiscing. Disk tubular, annular, obsolete, or absent, free or adnate to ovary. Ovary usually free, 2-5(or more)-locular, with 1 to many collateral or superposed ovules per locule; style single or rarely absent; stigma disciform or capitate. Fruit a berry (dry but indehiscent with arillate seeds in some Aglaia sect. Aglaia), capsule, or rarely a drupe. Seeds winged or with a fleshy aril or sarcotesta wholly or partly covering seed; endosperm fleshy or usually absent.

About 50 genera and 650 species: tropical, subtropical, and occasionally warm temperate regions of both hemispheres; 17 genera (three introduced) and 40 species (two endemic, three introduced) in China.

Chen Pangyu. 1997. Meliaceae. In: Chen Shukun, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 43(3): 34-104.


1 Fruit a capsule with winged seeds   (2)
+ Fruit a drupe or berry or with fibrous indehiscent pericarp and arillate seed or seeds, sometimes a capsule but seeds not winged   (6)
       
2 (1) Filaments distinct; disk shortly columnar or cylindric   (3)
+ Filaments connate into a staminal tube; disk cup-shaped, shallowly cup-shaped, or absent   (4)
       
3 (2) Disk shortly columnar, shorter than ovary; seeds winged at both ends or only at apical end.   1 Toona
+ Disk cylindric, taller than ovary; seeds winged only at basal end.   2 Cedrela
       
4 (2) Anthers inserted on apical margin of staminal tube, exserted.   5 Chukrasia
+ Anthers inserted inside staminal tube, included   (5)
       
5 (4) Capsule septicidal from base when mature; seeds with long and broad wing at apex.   3 Swietenia
+ Capsule 4- or 5-valvate from apex when mature; seeds with round membranous wing.   4 Khaya
       
6 (1) Leaves simple or with at most 3 leaflets   (7)
+ Leaves pinnate, with more than 3 leaflets   (9)
       
7 (6) Disk absent.   11 Aglaia
+ Disk present   (8)
       
8 (7) Disk annular or obsolete, ca. 1 mm high, surrounding only base of ovary; trees or shrubs more than 1 m tall.   6 Turraea
+ Disk tubular, completely surrounding ovary; shrublets, usually less than 50 cm tall.   7 Munronia
       
9 (6) Shrublets usually less than 50 cm tall.   7 Munronia
+ Trees or shrubs   (10)
       
10 (9) Filaments distinct or connate into a tube to half their length   (11)
+ Filaments completely or almost completely connate into a tube   (13)
       
11 (10) Filaments connate only at base; ovary usually 5-locular; fruit a drupe.   8 Cipadessa
+ Filaments connate for ± basal half into a staminal tube; ovary 2- or 3-locular; fruit a berry, capsule, or drupe   (12)
       
12 (11) Fruit a berry [rarely a capsule].   9 Walsura
+ Fruit a capsule, dehiscing into 2 segments.   10 Heynea
       
13 (10) Ovary with 4-8 distichous superposed ovules per locule.   17 Xylocarpus
+ Ovary with 1 or 2 ovules per locule   (14)
       
14 (13) Staminal tube cylindric; style elongate   (15)
+ Staminal tube subglobose, globose, urceolate, campanulate, or ovoid; style very short or absent   (17)
       
15 (14) Disk tubular, as long or longer than ovary.   14 Dysoxylum
+ Disk annular, shallowly cup-shaped, or absent   (16)
       
16 (15) Leaves pinnate; leaflet blades with margin entire.   15 Chisocheton
+ Leaves bipinnate; leaflet blades with margin dentate, crenate, or rarely entire.   16 Melia
       
17 (14) Fruit indehiscent with fibrous pericarp and arillate seeds   (18)
+ Fruit a capsule   (19)
       
18 (17) Anthers usually 5 or 6(-10), in 1 whorl.   11 Aglaia
+ Anthers 10, in 2 whorls.   12 Reinwardtiodendron
       
19 (17) Flowers in thyrses; young leaves usually covered with stellate trichomes or peltate scalelike trichomes.   11 Aglaia
+ Male flowers in thyrses, female flowers or bisexual flowers in spikes; young leaves not covered with trichomes.   13 Aphanamixis

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