All Floras      Advanced Search
FOC Vol. 9 Page 195 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 9 | Rosaceae

28. RUBUS Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 492. 1753.

悬钩子属 xuan gou zi shu

Lu Lingdi (Lu Ling-ti); David E. Boufford

Shrubs or subshrubs, deciduous, rarely evergreen or semievergreen, sometimes perennial creeping dwarf herbs. Stems erect, climbing, arching, or prostrate, glabrous or hairy, usually with prickles or bristles, sometimes with glandular hairs, rarely unarmed. Leaves alternate, petiolate, simple, palmately or pinnately compound, divided or undivided, toothed, glabrous or hairy, sometimes with glandular hairs, bristles, or glands; stipules persistent, ± adnate to petiole basally, undivided or occasionally lobed, persistent or caducous, near base of petiole or at junction of stem and petiole, free, usually dissected, occasionally entire. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual and plants dioecious, in cymose panicles, racemes, or corymbs, or several in clusters or solitary. Calyx expanded, sometimes with a short, broad tube; sepals persistent, erect or reflexed, (4 or)5(–8). Petals usually 5, rarely more, occasionally absent, white, pink, or red, glabrous or hairy, margin entire, rarely premorse. Stamens numerous, sometimes few, inserted at mouth of hypanthium; filaments filiform; anthers didymous. Carpels many, rarely few, inserted on convex torus, each carpel becoming a drupelet or drupaceous achene; locule 1; ovules 2, only 1 developing, collateral, pendulous; style filiform, subterminal, glabrous or hairy; stigma simple, capitate. Drupelets or drupaceous achenes aggregated on semispherical, conical, or cylindrical torus, forming an aggregate fruit, separating from torus and aggregate hollow, or adnate to torus and falling with torus attached at maturity and aggregate solid; seed pendulous, testa membranous; cotyledons plano-convex.

About 700 species: worldwide, particularly abundant in temperate regions of N hemisphere, a few species extending into S hemisphere; 208 species (139 endemic) in China.

The Chinese species of Rubus are mostly native and rare in cultivation. The fruit of many species are eaten raw or used for making jam, jelly, juice, candy, various drinks, wine, and vinegar. The dried fruits, seeds, and leaves are used in traditional Chinese medicine and the leaves are also used for tea. Some species are suitable for ornamental use, for hedges, or as ground covers. The stems and roots of some species are a source of tannin.

Rubus umbellifer H. Léveillé (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg 6: 111. 1908), described from China, is referable to Grewia biloba G. Don var. biflora (Bunge) Handel-Mazzetti (Tiliaceae).

For plants in Taiwan, also see J. Y. Huang & J. M. Hu. 2009. Revision of Rubus (Rosaceae) in Taiwan. Taiwania 54: 285-310. 2009.

1 Herbs, prostrate or creeping, rarely subshrubs; unarmed or sometimes with needle-like prickles or bristles; stipules free.   (2)
+ Shrubs, rarely subshrubs or herbs, usually with robust or needle-like prickles; stipules free or adnate to base of petiole.   (4)
2 (1) Flowers unisexual (plants dioecious); leaves simple.   8 R. sect. Chamaemorus
+ Flowers bisexual; leaves simple or compound.   (3)
3 (2) Plants with needle-like prickles or bristles; leaves simple; calyx usually with needle-like prickles or bristles abaxially; carpels more than 20, rarely less.   6 R. sect. Chamaebatus
+ Plants unarmed, rarely with needle-like prickles; leaves compound, 3–5-foliolate; calyx unarmed abaxially or sometimes with soft bristles; carpels fewer than 20, rarely more.   7 R. sect. Cylactis
4 (1) Stipules free, usually dissected, persistent or caducous; leaves simple or palmately compound.   (5)
+ Stipules adnate to base of petiole, rarely free, undivided, occasionally lobed, persistent.   (6)
5 (4) Plants prickly; stipules caducous or persistent; leaves simple, rarely palmately or pedately compound.   4 R. sect. Malachobatus
+ Plants densely bristly, bristles rarely with intermixed sparse, needle-like or small prickles; stipules persistent, rarely caducous; leaves simple.   5 R. sect. Dalibardastrum
6 (4) Leaves pinnately or palmately compound, (3–)5–11(–15)-foliolate, or simple; aggregate fruit separating from torus at maturity, hollow.   1 R. sect. Idaeobatus
+ Leaves usually ternate, sometimes pedately or palmately compound, rarely simple; aggregate fruit separating from or adnate to torus, hollow or not.   (7)
7 (6) Evergreen shrubs; leaves leathery; aggregate fruit separating from or adnate to torus at maturity, hollow or not.   2 R. sect. Lampobatus
+ Deciduous shrubs; leaves papery; aggregate fruit adnate to, rarely separating from torus at maturity, rarely hollow.   3 R. sect. Rubus

  • List of lower taxa


    Related Objects  
  • Rubus.PDF
  • PDF

    Flora of Chile  
  • PDF
  • PDF
    Trees and shrubs of the Andes of Ecuador  
  • Rubus roseus (Carmen Ulloa)
  • Image/JPEG

  • Comments

    Anthony R. Brach (
    For plants in Taiwan, also see J. Y. Huang & J. M. Hu. 2009. Revision of Rubus (Rosaceae) in Taiwan. Taiwania 54: 285-310. 2009.

    Flora of China @
    Browse by
    Advanced Search

    Flora of China Home




     |  eFlora Home |  People Search  |  Help  |  ActKey  |  Hu Cards  |  Glossary  |