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104. Tephroseris (Reichenbach) Reichenbach, Deut. Bot. Herb.-Buch (Nom.). 87. 1841.

狗舌草属 gou she cao shu

Authors: Yilin Chen, Bertil Nordenstam & Charles Jeffrey

Cineraria sect. Tephroseris Reichenbach, Fl. Germ. Excurs. 241. 1831.

Herbs, erect, perennial, rarely stoloniferous, rhizomatous, or rarely biennial or annual, with fibrous roots. Stems leafy, sometimes subscapiform, often arachnoid-tomentose at least when young. Leaves simple, petiolate or sessile, both radical and on stem. Radical leaves rosulate, persistent at or withered by anthesis; petiole winged or not winged, basally not auriculate; blade broadly ovate or deltoid to linear-spatulate, pinnately veined, base cordate to attenuate, margin coarsely sinuate-serrate or dentate to subentire. Capitula usually few to rather numerous, arranged in terminal, subumbelliform, simple or compound, corymbose cymes, rarely solitary, heterogamous and radiate, sometimes also homogamous and discoid, pedunculate. Involucres hemispheric, campanulate, or cylindric-campanulate, not calyculate, receptacle flat; phyllaries 18-25, rarely 13, uniseriate, linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, herbaceous, margin usually narrowly scarious or membranous. Ray florets 7-15, commonly 13, rarely 18 or 20-25; lamina yellow, orange, or purplish red, oblong, rarely linear or elliptic-oblong, 4-veined, apically usually 3-denticulate. Disk florets many, corolla yellow, orange, or orange-red, sometimes purple tinged; limb funnelform or rarely campanulate; lobes 5. Anthers linear-oblong, rarely oblong, base usually obtuse to rounded; antheropodium narrowly cylindric to cylindric, somewhat broader than filament, cells uniform, endothecial cell wall thickenings numerous, polar and radial. Style branches convex or less often truncate, with short, often few, obtuse marginal papillae. Achenes cylindric, ribbed, glabrous or sparsely to strongly pubescent. Pappus capillary-like, uniform, white or rarely rubescent, persistent, present in all florets.

About 50 species: temperate and arctic regions of Asia and Europe, and extending into North America; 14 species (four endemic) in China.

Tephroseris first appeared in the literature as the epithet of the name of a taxon of Cineraria Linnaeus of infrageneric, supraspecific rank (conventionally treated as sectional), validly published by Reichenbach in 1831: C. sect. Tephroseris Reichenbach (Fl. Germ. Excurs. 241. 1831). This taxon was later raised to generic rank by Reichenbach in 1841 as Tephroseris (Reichenbach) Reichenbach (Deut. Bot. Herb.-Buch (Nom.), 87. 1841). There, Reichenbach accepted three infrageneric, supraspecific taxa (conventionally treated as sections) within his genus, one of which was "3. Pericallis DeC." [sic]. This refers to Candolle (Prodr. 6: 340. 1838), who treated "Pericallis D. Don" in synonymy under Senecio but treated the species of that affinity (loc. cit.: 409) under S. "Ser. IX. Canarienses" [a nomen nudum] "§ [i.e., unranked]. 1. Pericallides" and nowhere there cited Don. However, within that taxon (loc. cit.: 410), Candolle included S. tussilaginis (L’Héritier) Lindley, the type (by monotypy, as P. tussilaginis (L’Héritier) D. Don) of the generic name Pericallis D. Don (in Swartz, Brit. Fl. Gard. 6: 228. 1838). Reichenbach, in citing "3. Pericallis DeC." under Tephroseris, effectively transferred S. [unranked] Pericallides Candolle to Tephroseris, as T. sect. Pericallides (Candolle) Reichenbach, and thereby implicitly included the type of Pericallis D. Don (1838) within Tephroseris (Reichenbach) Reichenbach (1841). The latter was therefore nomenclaturally superfluous when published (Vienna Code, Art. 52.1), but not illegitimate because it has a basionym (Art. 52.3). The following year, Reichenbach accepted Tephroseris (Reichenbach) Reichenbach in his Deutsche Bot. Fl. Sax. (146. 1842), and there (as in the present treatment) the generic name was correct because Pericallis was not included.

1 Plants biennial or annual; pappus hairs conspicuously elongating at fruiting; ray lamina pale yellow.   14 T. palustris
+ Plants perennial; pappus hairs not conspicuously elongating at fruiting; ray lamina yellow, orange, or purplish red   (2)
2 (1) Plants with long flagelliform stolons arising from base.   1 T. stolonifera
+ Plants without stolons   (3)
3 (2) Achenes pubescent at least in part   (4)
+ Achenes glabrous   (7)
4 (3) Ray lamina yellow, 6-11 mm   (5)
+ Ray lamina orange to purplish red, 15-20 mm   (6)
5 (4) Stem leaves and peduncles densely arachnoid and fulvous pubescent; radical leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, basally cordate or truncate; petioles not winged; achenes sparsely pubescent.   11 T. phaeantha
+ Stem leaves and peduncles usually densely arachnoid-tomentose; radical leaves oblong or obovate-oblong, basally cuneate to attenuate; petioles winged; achenes densely hirsute.   12 T. kirilowii
6 (4) Radical leaves present at anthesis; phyllaries 20-22; ray lamina oblong.   10 T. rufa
+ Radical leaves withered by anthesis; phyllaries ca. 25; ray lamina linear.   13 T. flammea
7 (3) Ray lamina orange or dark purplish red; involucres dark purple or fuscous-purple   (8)
+ Ray lamina yellow; involucres green   (9)
8 (7) Stem 10-20 cm tall, densely glandular villous and multicellular hairy; ray lamina orange with purple streaks, ca. 15 mm; pappus white, ca. 5.5 mm.   9 T. turczaninovii
+ Stem to 60 cm tall, floccose-tomentose; ray lamina orange to dark purplish red, ca. 20 mm; pappus rubescent, 3.5-4 mm.   10 T. rufa
9 (7) Involucres 7-9 mm; stem floccose-tomentose or arachnoid-tomentose, or rarely glabrescent   (10)
+ Involucres 4-6 mm; stem sparsely arachnoid or ± glabrous   (12)
10 (9) Phyllaries densely fulvous glandular pubescent; ray lamina ca. 17 mm.   8 T. adenolepis
+ Phyllaries 20-22, sparsely arachnoid or puberulent   (11)
11 (10) Stem and leaves arachnoid; involucres 10-14 mm in diam.; ray florets 20-25, lamina 7-8 mm.   6 T. pierotii
+ Stem and leaves puberulent or subglabrous; involucres 6-8 mm in diam.; ray florets 13-15, lamina ca. 12 mm.   7 T. taitoensis
12 (9) Phyllaries 20-25, lanceolate, sparsely puberulent; ray lamina ca. 10 mm; stem leaves basally auriculate and subamplexicaul.   4 T. pseudosonchus
+ Phyllaries 13-20, glabrous or hairy; ray lamina less than 8 mm; leaves basally not auriculate   (13)
13 (12) Leaf blades cordate-hastate; phyllaries 13; ray florets 7.   5 T. koreana
+ Leaf blades spatulate to ovate, not cordate; phyllaries 15-20; ray florets 13-20   (14)
14 (13) Phyllaries 18-20, glabrous; ray lamina 6-7 mm; leaves spatulate, linear-spatulate, or oblanceolate, margin entire or subentire.   2 T. subdentata
+ Phyllaries 15 or 16, arachnoid; ray lamina 5-6 mm; leaves ovate, apically obtuse to rounded, margin sparsely denticulate.   3 T. praticola

  • List of lower taxa


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