1. Tribe MUTISIEAE
帚菊木族 zhou ju mu zu
Authors: Tiangang Gao, Yousheng Chen, D. J. Nicholas Hind & Susana Edith Freire
Herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, trees, rarely climbers or ramblers, glabrous or with simple, glandular, malpighiaceous or stellate hairs, often glabrescent. Leaves usually evenly spaced, sometimes rosulate or densely spiraled, usually alternate, rarely opposite, lamina simple, variously shaped, usually herbaceous, venation trinervate, pinnate, sometimes parallel, or very rarely palmate, margin entire or lobed, serrate or denticulate, rarely spiny or pinnatisect, lamina rarely compound and paripinnate. Inflorescences scapose or scapiform, or synflorescences cymose or of corymbose or paniculate, axillary or terminal clusters, sometimes of glomerules, very rarely of pseudocephalia. Capitula small to very large, usually chasmogamous, very rarely cleistogamous, usually monoecious, homogamous or heterogamous, radiate, very rarely ligulate, rarely disciform or discoid, 1- to many flowered; involucres cylindric to globose or urceolate; phyllaries imbricate, few to many seriate, sometimes uniseriate, rarely calyculate, rarely distant, usually gradate, often papery or herbaceous, usually homomorphic; receptacles flat, convex or rarely conical, scrobiculate, foveolate, fimbrillate, or alveolate, glabrous or variously pubescent, usually epaleate. Florets rarely all actinomorphic, usually marginal and disk florets distinct; marginal florets usually variously bilabiate (2/3) or pseudobilabiate (1/4), and often distinctly radiate, sometimes ligulate (0/5), bisexual, female, or neuter, corollas glabrous or variously pubescent; staminodes rarely present; disk florets usually bilabiate (2/3), sometimes actinomorphic (5/0), usually fertile, corollas glabrous or variously pubescent, lobes short or long; stamens usually conspicuously exserted from corolla; filaments glabrous or rarely pubescent or papillate, antheropodia inconspicuous or sometimes distinct and variously enlarged or flattened; anther appendages usually acuminate or apiculate and several times as long as wide, sometimes thickened at apex and knoblike, sometimes truncate or rounded; anthers calcarate and caudate, rarely ecalcarate, tails usually long acute, entire or variously laciniate, sometimes conspicuously branched or pilose; styles usually well exserted from corolla and anther cylinder; style base sometimes with conspicuous nectary, with or without distinctive basal node, glabrous, style shaft usually glabrous, rarely papillose in upper part, style branches usually relatively short, apices acute, obtuse to rounded, or truncate and glabrous to papillose dorsally. Achenes fusiform or sometimes distinctly beaked, terete, ribbed or angled or very rarely flattened, glabrous or variously setuliferous, commonly with twin hairs, or rarely tomentose with long tortuous hairs, or appearing papillate, very rarely with stalked and sticky glands (Adenocaulon); carpopodium sometimes absent, more often usually a narrow annulus, sometimes cylindric; pappus sometimes absent but usually of uniseriate, sometimes biseriate to multiseriate, simple, barbellate, subplumose or plumose bristles, sometimes flattened or scalelike, persistent or deciduous, separate or sometimes basally connate.
About 80 genera and ca. 950 species: Africa, Asia, Australia, North and South America; nine genera (two endemic) and 73 species (50 endemic) in China.
Molecular evidence has proposed that a traditionally circumscribed Mutisieae is polyphyletic (Kim et al., Syst. Bot. 27: 598-609. 2002). The majority of the Mutisieae s.l. from China consists of Ainsliaea, Myripnois, and Pertya, and these genera form a distinct clade (recently recognized as the tribe Pertyeae) nested above the Cardueae and the African Mutisieae. Gerbera and its allies (Leibnitzia and Piloselloides) and Adenocaulon are nested in the Mutisieae s.s. clade along with other taxa mostly from South America. Leucomeris and Nouelia are apparently closely related to some South American Mutisieae, recently recognized as the tribe Hyalideae (Panero & Funk, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 115: 909-922. 2002; Panero & Funk, Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 47: 757-782. 2008). To allow easy comparison with FRPS, a conservative concept of the Mutisieae s.l. is followed in the treatment below.
Uechtritzia kokanica (Regel & Schmalhausen) Pobedimova (in Bobrov & Czerepanov, Fl. URSS 28: 597. 1963; Gerbera kokanica Regel & Schmalhausen, Izv. Imp. Obshch. Lyubit. Estestv. Moskovsk. Univ. 34(2): 53. 1882) was recorded from NW China by Pobedimova (loc. cit.) and H. V. Hansen (Nordic J. Bot. 8: 73. 1988). It is otherwise endemic to the Pamir-Altai and Tien Shan regions of C Asia, south to Afghanistan and Kashmir, at elevations of 1300-2000 m. It is not included in this treatment because no Chinese material could be traced.