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Flora of Taiwan | Family List | Orchidaceae

Liparis L. C. Rich.


Terrestrial or epiphytic perennial herbs. Stems long and fleshy, or short and forming ovoid pseudobulbs. Leaves solitary or 2 or more, mainly of 2 types, one membranaceous, plicate, continuous with sheaths, the other coriaceous, non-plicate, often articulated with pseudobulb. Inflorescence a terminal raceme, erect or +/- pendulous; peduncle terete, polygonal or compressed, often ridged or winged; bracteate; pedicel and ovary often ridged. Flowers white, greenish or purple, resupinate or not; sepals spreading or reflexed, recurved or revolute, usually wider than petals; petals often linear, revolute; lip adnate to base of column, deflexed or curved downward, +/- 3-lobed or unlobed, entire or denticulate; disc often with a pair of calli at base; column rather long, +/- curved, slightly or prominently winged near top of ventral surface; anther terminal, incumbent, 2-celled; pollinia 4, in 2 separate pairs, waxy, oblong or clavate, without caudicle; stigma entire; rostellum short, triangular, entire or rarely bifid. Capsules mostly ovoid or ellipsoid.

More than 260 species, widely distributed in tropical and temperate regions. Twenty one species in Taiwan.

Seidenfaden, G. 1976. Orchid Genera in Thailand. 4. Liparis L. C. Rich. in Dansk Bot. Ark. 31(1): 1-105.


1 Leaves continuous with sheath, usually membranaceous; plants mainly terrestrial, rarely epiphytic or lithophytic.   (2)
+ Leaves articulated with pseudobulb, coriaceous or nearly so, not plicate; plants mainly epiphytic or lithophytic.   (14)
2 (1) Leaf solitary.   (3)
+ Leaves 2 or more.   (4)
3 (2) Leaf elliptic or ovate, 1-2 cm long.   Liparis amabilis
+ Leaf cordate, more than 5 cm long.   Liparis cordifolia
4 (2) Leaves 2, mostly not plicate, usually with ovoid pseudobulbs at base.   (5)
+ Leaves 2-many, mostly plicate; with long stem or short pseudobulb.   (8)
5 (4) Rhizome distinct, pseudobulbs on rhizome 3-5 cm apart; leaves subcordate; lip straight, neither bent abruptly downward, nor arching downward.   Liparis auriculata
+ Rhizome absent, pseudobulbs closely aggregated; leaves ovate to oblong or obovate; lip more or less recurved or bent downward abruptly.   (6)
6 (5) Lip elongate ovate, ciliate, apex caudate, disc with a thick roof-like callus at base.   var. sasakii
+ Lip obovate, not ciliate, apex truncate, disc without callus at base.   (7)
7 (6) Sepals 10-12 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide; lip nearly entire, 10-12 mm long; column 6 mm long, distinctly arcuate, dilated at base into 2 round mounds.   Liparis japonica
+ Sepals 5-7 mm long, 2 mm wide; lip more or less serrulate at apex, 6-7 mm long; column 3.5 mm long, not distinctly arcuate, broadly dilated at base but without round mounds.   Liparis campylostalix
8 (4) Stems inconspicuous, pseudobulbs ovoid; leaves linear or linear lanceolate.   Liparis hensoaensis
+ Stems elongate cylindrical, without pseudobulbs; leaves elliptic to lanceolate.   (9)
9 (8) Apex of lip with 2 fimbriate or pectinate lobules   Liparis wrayii
+ Apex of lip without distinct lobules, entire or denticulate, neither fimbriate nor pectinate.   (10)
10 (9) Stems more than 2 cm in diam.; lip with 2 calli at base, calli continuous into keels on disc.   Liparis sootenzanensis
+ Stems less than 1.5 cm in diam.; lip without calli and longitudinal keels on disc.   (11)
11 (10) Flowers dark purple, dorsal sepal more than 1.8 cm long   Liparis nigra
+ Flowers greenish, tinged with purple, never dark purple throughout, dorsal sepal less than 1.6 cm long.   (12)
12 (11) Lip entire; apex of column with distinct acute wings.   Liparis formosana
+ Lip denticulate or nearly entire; apex of column without distinct wings.   (13)
13 (12) Dorsal sepal 13-15 mm long; lip green at first, later turning purple.   Liparis henryi
+ Dorsal sepal 8-9 mm long; lip green or tinged with purple.   Liparis nervosa
14 (1) Leaf solitary.   (15)
+ Leaves 2 or rarely 3.   (17)
15 (14) Leaves oblanceolate-linear, ca. 1 cm wide; lip without calli at base.   Liparis caespitosa
+ Leaves elongate oblong, 1.5-3 cm wide; lip with a pair of calli at base.   Liparis bootanensis
16 Stems cylindrical, terete, 8-15 cm long.   (17)
+ Stems obscure but with ovoid or compressed pseudobulbs less 6 cm long.   (18)
17 (16) Plants without rhizome, stems tufted.   Liparis condylobulbon
+ Plants with distinct rhizomes, stems produced at certain intervals.   Liparis viridiflora
18 (16) Pseudobulbs strongly flattened into an orbicular disk.   Liparis elliptica
+ Pseudobulbs not as above.   (19)
19 (18) Leaves thick coriaceous, apex rounded; flowers orange.   Liparis grossa
+ Leaves thin coriaceous, apex acute; flowers greenish or pale yellow.   (20)
20 (19) Pseudobulbs ovoid, not ridged; flowers greenish, dorsal sepal more than 8 mm long   Liparis nakaharai
+ Pseudobulbs clavate, distinctly 3-ridged; flowers pale yellow or nearly white; dorsal sepal less than 4 mm long   Liparis somai

  • List of lower taxa


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