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Lamiaceae Lindley

唇形科 chun xing ke

Authors: Xi-wen Li & Ian C. Hedge

Dracocephalum tanguticum

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs, sometimes subshrubs or shrubs, annual or perennial, usually aromatic. Stems and branches usually 4-angled. Leaves opposite, rarely whorled or alternate, simple to pinnately dissected or compound, without stipules. Inflorescences generally compound, sometimes flowers solitary and axillary; verticillasters 2- to many flowered, subtended by leaves or bracts. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, rarely subactinomorphic, bracteolate or not. Calyx persistent, 5-toothed, 2-lipped; upper lip 3-toothed or entire (deciduous in Scutellaria); lower lip 2- or 4-toothed; tube sometimes hairy annulate inside. Corolla limb usually 2-lipped; upper lip 2-lobed and lower 3-lobed, rarely upper lip entire and lower 4-lobed, also rarely limb (4- or) 5-lobed; tube hairy annulate inside. Stamens epipetalous, 4 or 2, free, rarely filaments connate, sometimes one staminodial; anther 1- or 2-celled, usually dehiscing longitudinally; disc persistent. Ovary superior, 2-celled and each cell 2-ovuled and style subterminal, or ovary 4-parted and each lobe 1-ovuled and style gynobasic (from bases of ovary lobes) with 2-cleft apex. Fruit usually 4 dry nutlets. Seeds with or without endosperm.

Approximately 3500 species in 220 genera, distributed worldwide, but mostly in the Mediterranean region and SW Asia. China has 807 species in 96 genera.

Cantino (Taxon 40: 441. 1991) suggests that Cardioteucris cordifolia C. Y. Wu, originally placed in the Lamiaceae, is identical with Caryopteris siccanea W. Smith (Verbenaceae, q.v.). Although the original author agrees with the identity of Cardioteucris cordifolia and Cardiopteris siccaneae, he believes that the generic placement of Cardioteucris is in the Lamiaceae because of its 2-lipped calyx and deeply 4-divided ovary. The last feature is aberrant in Caryopteris and all other Verbenaceae.

Wu Cheng-yih & Li Hsi-wen, eds. 1977. Labiatae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 65(2): 1-649, 66: 1-647.


Key 6

1 Posterior stamens much exserted between lobes of upper corolla lip, anterior stamens included before and much exserted after pollination; corolla subactinomorphic; calyx tubular, 2-lipped, posterior tooth largest, ovate-orbicular   60 Heterolamium
+ Stamens and corolla other than above; calyx campanulate or tubular, if 2-lipped, then posterior tooth not largest.   (2)
       
2 (1) Stamens ascending to underneath upper corolla lip.   (3)
+ Stamens ascending from base, if spreading then erect.   (7)
       
3 (2) Two anterior stamens fertile; calyx narrowly cylindric   61 Ziziphora
+ All stamens fertile.   (4)
       
4 (3) Corolla tube exserted   62 Melissa
+ Corolla included or exserted.   (5)
       
5 (4) Calyx regular or slightly irregular, 5-toothed, conspicuously 13-15-veined   63 Micromeria
+ Calyx irregular, conspicuously 2-lipped after anthesis, 13-18-veined.   (6)
       
6 (5) Bracteoles setiform, pilose; calyx throat slightly constricted, sparsely villous or glabrous inside, tube tubular and ventricose in front at base   64 Clinopodium
+ Bracteoles lanceolate-subulate, not pilose; calyx throat not constricted, hirsute annulate inside, tube tubular-campanulate, not ventricose in front at base   65 Calamintha
       
7 (2) Calyx 15-veined, with a thickened fold at each tooth sinus   66 Hyssopus
+ Calyx 10-13(-15)-veined, without thickened folds at sinuses.   (8)
       
8 (7) Stamens 2 or 4 (2 long and 2 short); calyx 10-veined, dilated in fruit; corolla 2-lipped or subactinomorphic.   (9)
+ Stamens 4 (except in Lycopus), subequal.   (10)
       
9 (8) Stamens 4; corolla lobes 5, short   71 Perilla
+ Stamens 2, anterior stamens reduced to linear staminodes; corolla nearly 2-lipped   72 Mosla
       
10 (8) Corolla 2-lipped; upper lip 2-lobed; lower lip 3-lobed; leaves mostly entire.   (11)
+ Corolla subactinomorphic, limb 4-lobed.   (12)
       
11 (10) Calyx equally 5-toothed, 13-15-veined; bracts overlapping, ovate or lanceolate, brightly colored   67 Origanum
+ Calyx 2-lipped, upper lip 3-toothed, lower lip prominently 2-toothed, 10-13-veined; bracts minute   68 Thymus
       
12 (10) Stamens 4, equal; nutlets rounded at apex   69 Mentha
+ Stamens 2; nutlets truncate at apex   70 Lycopus

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  • List of lower taxa


     

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