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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae

108. Senecio Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 866. 1753.

千里光属 qian li guang shu

Authors: Yilin Chen, Bertil Nordenstam, Charles Jeffrey & Leszek Vincent

Herbs perennial or annual, erect, rarely stoloniferous, decumbent, or rarely scandent, rhizomatous. Stems usually leafy, rarely subscapiform. Leaves simple; radical leaves usually petiolate, not auriculate, deltoid, lyrate or pinnately divided; stem leaves usually sessile, pinnately veined, basally often auriculate, lyrate or pinnately lobed, rarely unlobed, ± dentate. Capitula rarely solitary, axillary, usually few to numerous, arranged in terminal simple or compound corymbs or thyrses, heterogamous and radiate or homogamous and discoid, erect or nodding, usually pedunculate. Involucres calyculate, hemispheric, campanulate, or cylindric; receptacle flat; phyllaries 5-22, usually free, rarely connate to middle or above, herbaceous or leathery, margin scarious or membranous. Ray florets absent or 1-17(-24); lamina yellow, usually conspicuous, sometimes minute, 2-9-veined, apically usually 3-denticulate. Disk florets 3 to many; corolla yellow; limb funnelform or cylindric; lobes 5. Anthers oblong to linear, usually shortly obtuse-auriculate, rarely ± caudate with tail to 0.25 × as long as antheropodium; antheropodia balusterform, basally slightly to markedly dilated, with enlarged basal lateral cells; endothecial cell wall thickenings numerous, radial (inner anticlinal), cells often elongated. Style branches truncate or less often convex, with rather obtuse semicircle of marginal papillae, not appendiculate and devoid of a central tuft of longer papillae. Achenes cylindric, ribbed, glabrous or pubescent, epidermal cells smooth or papillose. Pappus capillary-like, uniform or sometimes dimorphic by presence of apically fluked hairs, white, straw-colored, or reddish brown, sometimes absent from ray florets or rarely from all florets.

At least 1,200 species: worldwide (except Antarctica) in the sense adopted here, but generic limits in some areas still uncertain; 65 species (39 endemic) in China.

The generic concept provided here is considered to cover Senecio s.s. plus a fringe of taxa that can be considered peripheral to Senecio s.s. but not extending to Senecio s.l. (fide Vincent).

A recent molecular taxonomic study (Pelser et al., Taxon 56: 1077-1104. 2007) suggests that certain elements should be removed from Senecio, namely, S. ser. Extremiorientales and S. ser. Erucifolii (to genus Jacobaea Miller), S. sect. Madaractis (to genus Madaractis), and S. sect. Flexicaules (to a new, as yet undescribed genus), while confirming the reference to Senecio s.s. of S. ser. Arnicoidei, S. ser. Nemorenses, S. ser. Monticolarum, and S. sect. Senecio. However, the study included no representatives of S. sect. Pinnati, nor of S. ser. Densiserrati, S. ser. Coriaceisquami, S. ser. Stenoglossi, S. ser. Cernui, S. ser. Purpureolobati, S. ser. Malacophylli, S. ser. Subscaposi, and S. ser. Asperifolii; therefore, their disposition remains in doubt. For this reason, Senecio is treated here in a broad sense, although its paraphyly (and perhaps polyphyly) as so circumscribed is acknowledged.

The following three taxa, described or reported from China, are of uncertain identity:

Senecio pelleifolius King ex J. R. Drummond (Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1911: 271. 1911). One of us (Jeffrey) notes that this is a name of uncertain application, perhaps an older synonym of Parasenecio palmatisectus.

Senecio campestris (Retzius) Candolle var. oliganthus Franchet (Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., sér. 2, 6: 54. 1883). One of us (Jeffrey) indicates that this belongs to a species of Tephroseris, either T. subdentata or T. kirilowii, and another of us (Nordenstam) concurs.

Senecio lancifer J. R. Drummond (Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1911: 270. 1911; Ligularia lancifera (J. R. Drummond) R. C. Srivastava & C. Jeffrey). One of us (Jeffrey) treats this as a Ligularia species, while another of the Asteraceae coauthors (Illarionova) has not seen any material of this species and does not know to which genus it belongs-according to the description, S. lancifer is unlike any species of Ligularia distributed in Xizang.


1 Plants annual   (2)
+ Plants perennial   (9)
       
2 (1) Capitula discoid, without marginal radiate female florets   (3)
+ Capitula radiate, with at least a few, though sometimes inconspicuous, marginal radiate female florets   (4)
       
3 (2) Phyllaries 18-22; calyculus bracts 7-11, long blackish tipped; synflorescences compact, peduncles. 5-2 cm.   62 S. vulgaris
+ Phyllaries ca. 15; calyculus bracts 4 or 5, without or sometimes with short blackish tip; synflorescences lax, peduncles 1.5-4 cm.   61 S. dubitabilis
       
4 (2) Capitula solitary, axillary; achenes glabrous, pappus hairs few, unequal, ca. 1.5 mm.   65 S. yungningensis
+ Capitula cymose; achenes pubescent, pappus hairs numerous, 3-6 mm   (5)
       
5 (4) Laminae of marginal female florets conspicuous, ca. 6 mm, much exceeding involucre   (6)
+ Laminae of marginal female florets very short, scarcely exceeding involucre   (7)
       
6 (5) Leaves undivided, broadly linear to oblong, marginally few toothed or subentire; phyllaries 13, with 2-5 green calyculus bracts; ray florets 7 or 8.   58 S. subdentatus
+ Leaves pinnatifid, leaf lobes oblong or linear-oblong, marginally entire or 1- or 2-denticulate; phyllaries 15-20, with 8-10 blackish tipped calyculus bracts; ray florets 8-12.   59 S. desfontainei
       
7 (5) Phyllaries united in lower 1/3-3/4; pappus hairs fasciculately connate, persistent; achenes sparsely puberulent.   64 S. oryzetorum
+ Phyllaries free; pappus hairs free, deciduous; achenes densely pubescent   (8)
       
8 (7) Leaves pinnatifid; leaf lobes broad, oblong-lanceolate, marginally entire or remotely denticulate; ray florets ca. 12; pappus hairs ca. 3 mm.   63 S. exul
+ Leaves pinnatipartite; leaf lobes narrowly linear; ray florets 4-7; pappus hairs ca. 5.5 mm.   60 S. krascheninnikovii
       
9 (1) Capitula discoid, without marginal radiate female florets   (10)
+ Capitula radiate, with at least a few, though sometimes inconspicuous, marginal radiate female florets   (21)
       
10 (9) Phyllaries 12-22, usually 13, 18, or 21   (11)
+ Phyllaries 5-10, usually 5 or 8   (14)
       
11 (10) Basal and lower stem leaves deltoid; phyllaries leathery   (12)
+ Basal and lower stem leaves pinnatifid or pinnatipartite   (13)
       
12 (11) Upper stem leaves without winged petioles; auricles inconspicuous or absent.   15 S. tricuspis
+ Upper stem leaves with broadly winged petioles; auricles conspicuous, toothed.   18 S. nigrocinctus
       
13 (11) Median stem leaves pinnatipartite; phyllaries broadly lanceolate, marginally fimbriate.   31 S. saussureoides
+ Median stem leaves lyrate-pinnatifid; phyllaries lanceolate, marginally entire.   32 S. muliensis
       
14 (10) Leaves abaxially densely white tomentose.   1 S. kumaonensis
+ Leaves abaxially green, not densely tomentose   (15)
       
15 (14) Basal and lower stem leaves lyrate-pinnatifid or runcinate   (16)
+ Basal and lower stem leaves deltoid   (18)
       
16 (15) Achenes pubescent.   40 S. diversipinnus
+ Achenes glabrous   (17)
       
17 (16) Involucres 8-10 mm, phyllaries 8; median stem leaves with up to 10 lateral lobes.   8 S. pseudomairei
+ Involucres ca. 6 mm, phyllaries 5; median stem leaves with 14-20 lateral lobes.   11 S. acutipinnus
       
18 (15) Phyllaries 5, florets 5 or 6.   16 S. humbertii
+ Phyllaries 8-10, florets 10-26   (19)
       
19 (18) Upper stem leaves with broadly winged petioles; phyllaries leathery, apically and on upper margin dark.   18 S. nigrocinctus
+ Upper stem leaves with unwinged or with narrowly winged petioles; phyllaries herbaceous, apically and marginally puberulent or fimbriate-hairy   (20)
       
20 (19) Capitula numerous, arranged in terminal corymb, ca. 7 × 3 mm; florets ca. 10.   17 S. liangshanensis
+ Capitula solitary or rarely paired in axils of uppermost leaves, forming a terminal racemose cyme, 8-10 × 5-8 mm; florets 15-18.   14 S. lijiangensis
       
21 (9) Laminae of marginal female florets minute, inconspicuous, shorter than style.   9 S. graciliflorus
+ Laminae of marginal female florets obvious, at least 4 mm, longer than style   (22)
       
22 (21) Achenes, at least of disk florets, pubescent, or at least with few hairs   (23)
+ Achenes all glabrous   (44)
       
23 (22) Plants subscapose; stem leaves small and bractlike in comparison to radical leaves   (24)
+ Plants with leafy stems; stem leaves well developed   (27)
       
24 (23) Basal leaves long petiolate.   44 S. analogus
+ Basal leaves sessile   (25)
       
25 (24) Involucres 3-4 × 2-4 mm.   42 S. obtusatus
+ Involucres 5-7 × 5-8 mm   (26)
       
26 (25) Leaves elliptic, oblanceolate, or spatulate, margin with repand-denticulate teeth, adaxially glabrous.   41 S. spathiphyllus
+ Leaves oblong-lanceolate, margin pinnatifid or subpinnatipartite, thinly arachnoid-tomentose.   48 S. nudicaulis
       
27 (23) Stems scandent or subscandent   (28)
+ Stems erect   (31)
       
28 (27) Leaves petiolate; plants truly scandent; synflorescence branches and peduncles widely divaricate.   57 S. scandens
+ Leaves sessile, subamplexicaul; plants scrambling; synflorescence branches and peduncles ascending   (29)
       
29 (28) Leaves pinnately lobed.   55 S. fukienensis
+ Leaves all or mostly subentire or dentate   (30)
       
30 (29) Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate to narrowly oblong-lanceolate, laxly pilose or glabrous.   54 S. stauntonii
+ Leaf blade lanceolate to linear, asperulous or hispid, especially abaxially.   52 S. asperifolius
       
31 (27) Phyllaries 5 or 6; ray florets 2.   35 S. biligulatus
+ Phyllaries at least 8, usually 12-22; ray florets 5 or more   (32)
       
32 (31) Leaves all or mostly unlobed, subentire, or dentate   (33)
+ Leaves bipinnately, pinnately, or lyrately lobed   (37)
       
33 (32) Lower and median stem leaves long petiolate   (34)
+ Lower and median stem leaves shortly petiolate or subsessile   (35)
       
34 (33) Phyllaries leathery; ray lamina ca. 8 mm.   19 S. coriaceisquamus
+ Phyllaries herbaceous; ray lamina 10-12 mm.   56 S. tarokoensis
       
35 (33) Leaves auriculate, subamplexicaul.   54 S. stauntonii
+ Leaves not auriculate   (36)
       
36 (35) Leaves papery, asperulous, margin remotely dentate or subentire and revolute; capitula arranged in elongate thyrsoid cymes; involucres 7-9 mm.   52 S. asperifolius
+ Leaves membranous, sparsely finely pubescent, margin closely dentate and flat; capitula arranged in spreading compound cymes; involucres 4.5-6 mm.   6 S. morrisonensis
       
37 (32) Stems weak, subscandent; median stem leaves 3-5 cm, lobes entire.   55 S. fukienensis
+ Stems stout, erect; median stem leaves 6-30 cm, lobes dentate   (38)
       
38 (37) Stem leaves basally not auriculate, not subamplexicaul   (39)
+ Stem leaves basally with dentate or laciniate subamplexicaul auricles   (41)
       
39 (38) Ray florets 8-12; lower and median stem leaves petiolate, petioles 3-8 cm.   56 S. tarokoensis
+ Ray florets 5(or 6); lower and median stem leaves subsessile, or if petiolate then petioles not exceeding 2 cm   (40)
       
40 (39) Involucres 4.5-6 mm; stem leaves serrate to serrate-lobulate or deeply pinnately lobed.   6 S. morrisonensis
+ Involucres 8-10 mm; stem leaves very deeply and narrowly bipinnately or tripinnately lobed.   7 S. kuanshanensis
       
41 (38) Ray florets absent or 5; phyllaries 8 or 9.   40 S. diversipinnus
+ Ray florets 10-15; phyllaries 10-15, rarely 8   (42)
       
42 (41) Involucres 3-4 × 3-4 mm; pappus straw-colored or pale brownish.   44 S. analogus
+ Involucres 5-8 × 5-10 mm; pappus white   (43)
       
43 (42) Ray lamina ca. 12 mm; involucres 7-8 × 6-10 mm; pappus persistent in all florets.   49 S. ambraceus
+ Ray lamina 8-10 mm; involucres 5-6 × 5-7 mm, pappus deciduous in ray florets.   51 S. jacobaea
       
44 (22) Capitula pendulous, peduncles cernuous   (45)
+ Capitula and peduncles erect or ascending   (48)
       
45 (44) Leaves abaxially white tomentose   (46)
+ Leaves abaxially green, both surfaces glabrous   (47)
       
46 (45) Involucres 5-6 × 3-5 mm; ray florets 6-8.   24 S. drukensis
+ Involucres 7-8 × 10-15 mm; ray florets 18-21.   23 S. nodiflorus
       
47 (45) Basal and lower leaves present at anthesis, leaf blade flat, with 5 pairs of lateral veins; phyllaries 17, fulvous pubescent; ray florets 18.   22 S. atrofuscus
+ Basal and lower leaves withered at anthesis, leaf blade revolute when dry, with 2 or 3 pairs of lateral veins; phyllaries 15, glabrous; ray florets 8-11.   25 S. daochengensis
       
48 (44) Basal and lower stem leaves basally cordate or hastate, margin not pinnately lobed, present at anthesis   (49)
+ Basal and lower stem leaves basally broadly cuneate to attenuate, margin unlobed or pinnatisect, lyrate-pinnatifid, or runcinate, present or withered at anthesis   (53)
       
49 (48) Ray lamina 15-22 × ca. 1 mm   (50)
+ Ray lamina shorter and comparatively broader, 4-10 mm   (51)
       
50 (49) Involucres 6-7 × 2-3 mm; phyllaries 8; ray florets 3, lamina ca. 15 mm.   21 S. lingianus
+ Involucres 8-10 × 3-5 mm; phyllaries 10-13; ray florets 4, lamina 20-22 mm.   20 S. arachnanthus
       
51 (49) Plants 10-25 cm tall; capitula 3-5; phyllaries 15-18, with dark margins.   33 S. dodrans
+ Plants 40-100 cm tall; capitula numerous; phyllaries 6-8 or 10-13, without dark margins   (52)
       
52 (51) Lower stem leaves triangular, basally deeply cordate; ray florets 3, lamina ca. 4 mm.   34 S. actinotus
+ Lower stem leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, basally weakly cordate; ray florets 10-13, lamina ca. 6.5 mm.   44 S. analogus
       
53 (48) Pappus absent in ray florets   (54)
+ Pappus present in ray florets   (57)
       
54 (53) Disk florets without a pappus.   47 S. echaetus
+ Disk florets with a pappus   (55)
       
55 (54) Stem leaves undivided, serrate-dentate, 5-10 cm.   53 S. wightii
+ Stem leaves lyrate-pinnatisect or lyrate-pinnatifid, median ones 10-22 cm   (56)
       
56 (55) Involucres 5-7 × 4-10 mm; ray lamina ca. 8 mm, pappus reddish brown.   46 S. raphanifolius
+ Involucres 3-4 × 3-4 mm; ray lamina ca. 6.5 mm; pappus straw-colored or pale brownish.   44 S. analogus
       
57 (53) Peduncles hollow and expanded below capitula; achenes 7-8 mm.   2 S. pseudoarnica
+ Peduncles slender; achenes 2-5 mm   (58)
       
58 (57) Leaves lanceolate, closely regularly denticulate, abaxially densely white tomentose.   4 S. densiserratus
+ Leaves not as above   (59)
       
59 (58) Plants subscapose; stem leaves small and bractlike in comparison to basal ones   (60)
+ Plants with leafy stems; stem leaves well developed   (62)
       
60 (59) Median stem leaves linear-lanceolate to linear, basally expanded, glabrous.   41 S. spathiphyllus
+ Median stem leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, lyrate-pinnatifid, basally auriculate-amplexicaul with toothed or lobed auricles, ± tomentose   (61)
       
61 (60) Capitula numerous; involucres 3-4 mm; ray florets 10-13, lamina ca. 6.5 mm.   44 S. analogus
+ Capitula 2-6; involucres ca. 8 mm; ray florets 16-21, lamina 10-11 mm.   45 S. tibeticus
       
62 (59) Shoots dwarf, 2-20 cm tall; capitula 1-10 in each synflorescence; median stem leaves 2.5-4 cm; upper stem leaves with small entire auricles or not auriculate   (63)
+ Shoots more robust, 30-150 cm tall; capitula numerous in each synflorescence, or if plant shorter and with few capitula per synflorescence then upper stem leaves with coarsely dentate auricles   (67)
       
63 (62) Capitula large, solitary at apex; involucres 15-20 mm wide, basally 10-13-calyculate; phyllaries 21-23; ray florets 10-13.   28 S. megalanthus
+ Capitula smaller, few corymbose; involucres less than 10 mm wide, basally 4-8-calyculate; ray florets fewer than 10   (64)
       
64 (63) Phyllaries 13; involucres 4-8 × 3-6 mm   (65)
+ Phyllaries 18-21; involucres 8-10 × 6-8 mm   (66)
       
65 (64) Involucres 4-5 × 3-4 mm; ray florets 5 or 6, lamina ca. 4 mm.   30 S. kongboensis
+ Involucres 6-8 × 5-6 mm; ray florets ca. 10, lamina 5-6 mm.   27 S. thianschanicus
       
66 (64) Plants 2-6 cm tall; ray lamina ca. 7.5 mm.   29 S. lhasaensis
+ Plants 8-20 cm tall; ray lamina 10-12 mm.   26 S. albopurpureus
       
67 (62) Stem leaves unlobed, dentate   (68)
+ Stem leaves at least lower ones bipinnately, pinnately, or runcinately lobed   (70)
       
68 (67) Leaf petioles basally with small to minute auricles; pappus straw-colored.   3 S. cannabifolius
+ Leaf petioles without auricles; pappus white   (69)
       
69 (68) Ray florets 8-10, lamina 11-13 mm; involucres 6-7 × 4-5 mm.   5 S. nemorensis
+ Ray florets 5 or 6, lamina 8-9 mm; involucres 4.5-6 × 2-4 mm.   6 S. morrisonensis
       
70 (67) Phyllaries 5-10, usually 5-8   (71)
+ Phyllaries 12-22, usually 13 or 21   (77)
       
71 (70) Leaf blade of lower and median stem leaves basally cuneate, narrowly decurrent to petiole, 11-30 × 4-15 cm, with 2 or 3 ascending, oblong-lanceolate, serrulate lateral lobes on each side.   3 S. cannabifolius
+ Leaf blade and lateral lobes of lower and median stem leaves not as above   (72)
       
72 (71) Median stem leaves runcinate, with large terminal lobe, 1 or 2 pairs of lateral lobes, and largest lateral lobes uppermost; involucres 1.5-2 mm wide; ray florets 3 or 4.   36 S. faberi
+ Median stem leaves pinnatisect, with small terminal lobe, 3-12 pairs of lateral lobes, and largest lateral lobes at or below middle, or if leaves ± lyrate with large terminal lobe then involucre 3-4 mm wide and ray florets 8-13   (73)
       
73 (72) Lateral lobes of median and upper stem leaves 8-12 on each side   (74)
+ Lateral lobes of median and upper stem leaves 3-6 on each side   (75)
       
74 (73) Involucres 6-9 mm; ray lamina ca. 7 mm.   10 S. multilobus
+ Involucres 3-4 mm; ray lamina ca. 4.5 mm.   38 S. pteridophyllus
       
75 (73) Involucres 7-8 mm; ray lamina ca. 6 mm; pappus ca. 6 mm.   12 S. cinarifolius
+ Involucres 3-5 mm; pappus 4-4.5 mm   (76)
       
76 (75) Involucres campanulate; pappus straw-colored or pale brownish; median stem leaves lyrate-pinnatifid; ray lamina ca. 6.5 mm; roots not tomentose.   44 S. analogus
+ Involucres narrowly campanulate-cylindric; pappus white; median stem leaves pinnatipartite; ray lamina ca. 4 mm; roots tomentose.   13 S. royleanus
       
77 (70) Plants with elongated, well-developed stolons.   37 S. filifer
+ Plants not stoloniferous   (78)
       
78 (77) Stem leaves petiolate, not auriculate.   6 S. morrisonensis
+ Stem leaves sessile, with basal dentate or laciniate auricles   (79)
       
79 (78) Capitula large, involucres 5-7 × 8-15 mm; ray lamina 9-12 mm   (80)
+ Capitula small, involucres 3-6 × 3-7 mm; ray lamina 4.5-9 mm   (82)
       
80 (79) Pappus reddish brown, scant in ray florets, 4-5 mm.   46 S. raphanifolius
+ Pappus white, abundant on all florets, ca. 6 mm   (81)
       
81 (80) Bracts of calyculus 10-12; ray lamina ca. 9 mm.   43 S. multibracteolatus
+ Bracts of calyculus 2-6; ray lamina ca. 12 mm.   49 S. ambraceus
       
82 (79) Basal and lower stem leaves lyrate, with comparatively large, broad, dentate terminal lobes.   44 S. analogus
+ Basal and lower stem leaves pinnatisect, with small, narrow terminal lobes   (83)
       
83 (82) Involucres 5-6 × 6-7 mm; ray florets 10-13, lamina 8-9 mm.   50 S. argunensis
+ Involucres 3-5 × 3-6 mm; ray florets 5-8, lamina 4-8 mm   (84)
       
84 (83) Ray lamina ca. 4.5 mm; pappus ca. 4 mm.   38 S. pteridophyllus
+ Ray lamina ca. 8 mm; pappus ca. 5.5 mm.   39 S. chungtienensis

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