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Pakistan | Family List



Department of Botany, University of Karachi.

Trees, shrubs or twiners, sometimes herbs, with milky juice. Leaves opposite or whorled, rarely alternate or spiral, simple, entire, sometimes glandular on the entire midrib or at the base of the .midrib, stipulate or exstipulate. Inflorescence axillary or of terminal dichasial cymes or racemes. Flowers bisexual, regular, bracteate or apparently ebracteate. Calyx- (4-) 5 lobed, sometimes polysepalous, lobes equal or unequal, imbricate, often glandular inside at the base, corolla (4-) 5 lobed, hypogynous, rotate, salver-form or campanulate, valvate or twisted in bud; sometimes corona appendages present; stamens (4-) 5, usually inserted on the base of corolla tube, included or exserted; filament very short or absent; anther occasionally connivent with stigma; pollen sometimes in tetrads. Pistil one, basically composed of 2 carpels-free or syncarpous, terminating into single stigma, superior or subinferior, mostly unilocular or bilocular with parietal placentation, rarely bilocular with axile placentation, ovules one to many; style simple or divided at base, stigma large and of various types, mostly umbraculiform below and capitate or pentagonal above. Fruit a fleshy or dry drupe, berry, samara or follicles. Seeds 1 to many, pubescent, winged or apically comose.

A family of 300 genera and nearly 2000 species distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres, represented in Pakistan by 6 native genera (with 6 species) and 13 cultivated genera (with 20 species).

Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the United States Department of Agriculture for financing this research under PL-480. Thanks are also due to Mr. I. C. Hedge of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, for going through the manuscript.

1 Corona present   (2)
+ Corona absent   (4)
2 (1) Leaves whorled or opposite; anthers ± exserted   (3)
+ Leaves spiral or alternate; anthers included   14 Thevetia
3 (2) Corona petaloid   10 Nerium
+ Corona scale-like   19 Wrightia
4 (1) Anthers connivent with stigma   (5)
+ Anthers not connivent with stigma   (9)
5 (4) Erect perennial herb or under-shrub; stigma 2-lobed, columnar or sub-globose   16 Trachomitum
+ Erect or climbing shrub or tree; stigma not 2-lobed, columnar or fusiform   (6)
6 (5) Flowers in terminal axillary cymes   (7)
+ Flowers in various types of racemes   17 Vallaris
7 (6) Corolla rotate or salver-form; stigma columnar   (8)
+ Corolla campanulate or funnel-shaped; stigma fusiform   4 Beaumontia
8 (7) Corolla lobes deflexed; tube inflated in the centre; seeds beaked. (wild)   8 Ichnocarpus
+ Corolla lobes obliquely truncate; tube inflated at the top; seeds not beaked.(cultivated)   15 Trachelospermum
9 (4) Fruit a follicle, or capsule   (12)
+ Fruit a berry-like drupe   (10)
10 (9) Disc absent   (11)
+ Disc present   12 Rauvolfia
11 (10) Calyx 5-lobed; stigma fusiform or columnar   5 Carissa
+ Calyx polysepalous; stigma 2-lobed, pointed   1 Acokanthera
12 (9) Herb or under-shrub   (13)
+ Tree or large shrub   (14)
13 (12) Corolla salverform; flowers 1-3 in the leaf axils   9 Catharanthus
+ Corolla infundibuliform; flower 1 in the leaf axils   18 Vinca
14 (12) Seed winged   (15)
+ Seed not winged   (17)
15 (14) Calyx eglandular on both sides   (16)
+ Calyx glandular outside, eglandular inside   11 Plumeria
16 (15) Corolla salverform. Fruit a follicle (Plants wild.)   13 Rhazya
+ Corolla campanulate or funnel-shaped. Fruit a capsule. (Plants cultivated)   2 Allamanda
17 (14) Leaves opposite; calyx glandular inside   (18)
+ Leaves whorled; calyx eglandular inside   3 Alstonia
18 (17) Stamen inserted near the base of the tube; corolla throat contracted   7 Holarrhena
+ Stamen inserted at or above the middle of the tube; corolla throat not contracted, inflated in the middle or top   6 Ervatamia

  • List of lower taxa


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