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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Primulaceae

8. Primula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 142. 1753.

报春花属 bao chun hua shu

Primula amethystina

Credit: Nick Turland

Herbs perennial, rarely annual, glabrous or pubescent, often farinose. Leaves simple, forming a rosette. Flowers usually heterostylous with pin (with longer styles) and thrum (with shorter styles) flowers; sometimes homostylous, in umbellate, racemose, subcapitate, or spicate inflorescences on scapes, with bracts; rarely solitary, scapes undeveloped. Calyx campanulate or cylindric, sometimes leaflike, 5-toothed. Corolla tube cylindric, not constricted at throat; limb 5-lobed, spreading or campanulate; lobes 2-cleft, margin entire. Stamens inserted on corolla tube; filaments very short; anthers obtuse. Ovary superior. Capsule globose, ovoid, or cylindric, dehiscing by valves, rarely with an operculum or crumbling; seeds numerous.

Approximately 500 species, mostly indigenous to the N temperate zone, with only a few outliers on the mountainous regions of Africa (Ethiopia), tropical Asia (Java and Sumatra), and South America. About 300 species are native to China.

Many species are imperfectly known, sometimes collected only once. This is reflected occasionally by missing details on pin or thrum morphology, fruiting characteristics, or ecology.

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The 300 species are represented by 24 sections according to C. M. Hu: 1. Sect. Monocarpicae Franchet ex Pax: spp. 1--13. 2. Sect. Obconicolisteri I. B. Balfour: spp. 14--23. 3. Sect. Cortusoides I. B. Balfour: spp. 24--40. 4. Sect. Malvacea I. B. Balfour: spp. 41--47. 5. Sect. Auganthus (Link) Pax ex I. B. Balfour: spp. 48--50. 6. Sect. Pycnoloba I. B. Balfour: sp. 51. 7. Sect. Ranunculoides Chen & C. M. Hu: spp. 52--53. 8. Sect. Primula: sp. 54. 9. Sect. Carolinella (Hemsley) Pax: spp. 55--62. 10. Sect. Bullatae Pax: spp. 63--66. 11. Sect. Petiolares Pax: spp. 67--115. 12. Sect. Proliferae Pax: spp. 116--134. 13. Sect. Amethystina I. B. Balfour: spp. 135--142. 14. Sect. Sikkimensis I. B. Balfour: spp. 143--150. 15. Sect. Crystallophlomis Rupr.: spp. 151--191. 16. Sect. Cordifoliae Pax: spp. 192--196. 17. Sect. Aleuritia Duby: spp. 197--242. Spp. 238--242 are recognized in Europe and North America as Sect. Armerina. 18. Sect. Minutissimae Pax: spp. 243--259. 19. Sect. Souliei I. B. Balfour ex W. W. Smith & Forrest: spp. 260--265. 20. Sect. Dryadifolia I. B. Balfour: spp. 266--268. 21. Sect. Denticulata Watt: spp. 269--274. 22. Sect. Capitatae Pax: spp. 275--276. 23. Sect. Muscarioides I. B. Balfour: spp. 277--289. 24. Sect. Soldanelloides Pax: spp. 290--300.


Key 2

1 Inflorescences subcapitate, short pedicellate; calyx actinomorphic.   (2)
+ Inflorescences capitate or spicate; flowers sessile, reflexed; calyx ± zygomorphic.   (13)
       
2 (1) Bracts broadly ovate to elliptic, leaflike; leaf blade broadly elliptic to suborbicular, base truncate or slightly cordate, evergreen   266 Primula dryadifolia
+ Bracts lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate; leaf blade not as above.   (3)
       
3 (2) Flowers spreading or ± nodding; bracts and flower buds overlapping, forming a tuft or crown at apex   276 Primula capitata
+ Flowers erect; bracts not forming a crown at apex.   (4)
       
4 (3) Plants with basal bud scales at anthesis.   (5)
+ Plants without basal bud scales at anthesis.   (6)
       
5 (4) Leaves puberulent or glabrescent; corolla exannulate   269 Primula denticulata
+ Leaves glabrous; corolla annulate   270 Primula monticola
       
6 (4) Leaves pubescent.   (7)
+ Leaves glabrous.   (9)
       
7 (6) Inflorescences loose; pedicel 2-5 mm; leaves pilose   273 Primula laxiuscula
+ Inflorescences compact; pedicel less than 2 mm; leaves septate or scabrous glandular pubescent.   (8)
       
8 (7) Flowering scapes (1-)4-8(-15) cm; leaves with fine scabrous glandular hairs   271 Primula atrodentata
+ Flowering scapes (6-)10-30 cm; leaves with white septate hairs   272 Primula erythrocarpa
       
9 (6) Calyx parted below middle, lobes acute   275 Primula glomerata
+ Calyx parted only to middle, lobes obtuse.   (10)
       
10 (9) Inflorescences 2-4 cm in diam.; flowering scapes to 35 cm   274 Primula pseudodenticulata
+ Inflorescences 1-1.5 cm in diam.; flowering scapes to 11 cm.   (11)
       
11 (10) Leaves conspicuously denticulate; bracts not concealing pedicels   197 Primula glabra
+ Leaves entire or obscurely denticulate; bracts concealing pedicels, ca. 1/2 as long as calyx.   (12)
       
12 (11) Leaves densely glandular; calyx and bracts often tinged with purple   198 Primula kongboensis
+ Leaves sparsely glandular; calyx and bracts green, puberulent   199 Primula pseudoglabra
       
13 (1) Corolla tube 1.8-4 cm, limb 2-3 cm wide   294 Primula sherriffiae
+ Corolla tube and limb usually less than 1.1 cm.   (14)
       
14 (13) Corolla lobes acute at apex.   (15)
+ Corolla lobes rounded, truncate, or lobed at apex.   (16)
       
15 (14) Bracts and calyx crimson; scapes glabrous   278 Primula vialii
+ Bracts and calyx green or tinged with purple; scapes sparsely pilose   279 Primula gracilenta
       
16 (14) Leaves scabrous-pubescent   280 Primula violacea
+ Leaves with long multicellular hairs or subglabrous.   (17)
       
17 (16) Corolla tube only slightly longer than calyx; limb subglobose   281 Primula concholoba
+ Corolla tube at least 2 × as long as calyx, limb funnelform.   (18)
       
18 (17) Style of thrum flower reaching middle of corolla tube.   (19)
+ Style of thrum flower approaching base of corolla tube.   (20)
       
19 (18) Corolla deep indigo-purple; lobes nearly quadrate, apex truncate or obscurely emarginate   282 Primula watsonii
+ Corolla bluish violet to pale purple; lobes ovate to suborbicular, margin entire   283 Primula giraldiana
       
20 (18) Leaf blade obovate to oblanceolate, entire to repand-crenulate, subsessile   284 Primula cernua
+ Leaf blade usually elliptic to lanceolate, crenate, dentate, or lobed, distinctly petiolate.   (21)
       
21 (20) Inflorescences ± white farinose   285 Primula bellidifolia
+ Inflorescences efarinose or yellow farinose.   (22)
       
22 (21) Corolla lobes spreading   286 Primula aerinantha
+ Corolla lobes ± erect.   (23)
       
23 (22) Scapes pilose or subglabrous   287 Primula deflexa
+ Scapes glabrous.   (24)
       
24 (23) Leaf blade crenate-dentate; corolla lobes truncate to emarginate at apex   288 Primula muscarioides
+ Leaf blade deeply incised-lobulate or pinnatifid or very coarsely dentate; corolla lobes rounded or nearly so at apex   289 Primula pinnatifida

List of Keys

  • List of lower taxa


     

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