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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Primulaceae

8. Primula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 142. 1753.

报春花属 bao chun hua shu

Primula secundiflora
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Herbs perennial, rarely annual, glabrous or pubescent, often farinose. Leaves simple, forming a rosette. Flowers usually heterostylous with pin (with longer styles) and thrum (with shorter styles) flowers; sometimes homostylous, in umbellate, racemose, subcapitate, or spicate inflorescences on scapes, with bracts; rarely solitary, scapes undeveloped. Calyx campanulate or cylindric, sometimes leaflike, 5-toothed. Corolla tube cylindric, not constricted at throat; limb 5-lobed, spreading or campanulate; lobes 2-cleft, margin entire. Stamens inserted on corolla tube; filaments very short; anthers obtuse. Ovary superior. Capsule globose, ovoid, or cylindric, dehiscing by valves, rarely with an operculum or crumbling; seeds numerous.

Approximately 500 species, mostly indigenous to the N temperate zone, with only a few outliers on the mountainous regions of Africa (Ethiopia), tropical Asia (Java and Sumatra), and South America. About 300 species are native to China.

Many species are imperfectly known, sometimes collected only once. This is reflected occasionally by missing details on pin or thrum morphology, fruiting characteristics, or ecology.

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The 300 species are represented by 24 sections according to C. M. Hu: 1. Sect. Monocarpicae Franchet ex Pax: spp. 1--13. 2. Sect. Obconicolisteri I. B. Balfour: spp. 14--23. 3. Sect. Cortusoides I. B. Balfour: spp. 24--40. 4. Sect. Malvacea I. B. Balfour: spp. 41--47. 5. Sect. Auganthus (Link) Pax ex I. B. Balfour: spp. 48--50. 6. Sect. Pycnoloba I. B. Balfour: sp. 51. 7. Sect. Ranunculoides Chen & C. M. Hu: spp. 52--53. 8. Sect. Primula: sp. 54. 9. Sect. Carolinella (Hemsley) Pax: spp. 55--62. 10. Sect. Bullatae Pax: spp. 63--66. 11. Sect. Petiolares Pax: spp. 67--115. 12. Sect. Proliferae Pax: spp. 116--134. 13. Sect. Amethystina I. B. Balfour: spp. 135--142. 14. Sect. Sikkimensis I. B. Balfour: spp. 143--150. 15. Sect. Crystallophlomis Rupr.: spp. 151--191. 16. Sect. Cordifoliae Pax: spp. 192--196. 17. Sect. Aleuritia Duby: spp. 197--242. Spp. 238--242 are recognized in Europe and North America as Sect. Armerina. 18. Sect. Minutissimae Pax: spp. 243--259. 19. Sect. Souliei I. B. Balfour ex W. W. Smith & Forrest: spp. 260--265. 20. Sect. Dryadifolia I. B. Balfour: spp. 266--268. 21. Sect. Denticulata Watt: spp. 269--274. 22. Sect. Capitatae Pax: spp. 275--276. 23. Sect. Muscarioides I. B. Balfour: spp. 277--289. 24. Sect. Soldanelloides Pax: spp. 290--300.


Key 12

1 Corolla campanulate, exannulate.   (2)
+ Corolla funnelform, usually annulate.   (6)
       
2 (1) Corolla rose-lavender or rose-purple; calyx lobes oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, apex subacute; capsule ca. 2 × as long as calyx   187 Primula boreiocalliantha
+ Corolla yellow or white; calyx lobes oblong, apex rounded or obtuse; capsule usually ca. as long as calyx.   (3)
       
3 (2) Leaf blade laciniate-dentate   188 Primula agleniana
+ Leaf blade regularly serrate or crenulate.   (4)
       
4 (3) Scapes robust, 5- or 6-flowered   189 Primula obliqua
+ Scapes slender, 1- or 2-flowered.   (5)
       
5 (4) Leaf blade linear-lanceolate, 5-10 mm wide, base attenuate   190 Primula falcifolia
+ Leaf blade ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 15-25 mm wide, base cordate to rounded or cuneate   191 Primula elizabethiae
       
6 (1) Calyx campanulate; corolla lobes dentate or lobed; capsule globose, submembranous, crumbled irregularly.   (7)
+ Calyx tubular or narrowly campanulate; corolla lobes entire (lobed or dentate in P. calliantha, P. elongata, P. farreriana, P. macrophylla, P. megalocarpa); capsule oblong, opening by short teeth.   (25)
       
7 (6) Corolla yellow.   (8)
+ Corolla lilac, rose-purple, or white.   (14)
       
8 (7) Leaf blade attenuate at base.   (9)
+ Leaf blade rounded to cordate or short decurrent at base.   (11)
       
9 (8) Leaf blade crenate to denticulate; calyx lobes ovate to ovate-oblong, apex obtuse   86 Primula strumosa
+ Leaf blade coarsely dentate or pinnatifid; calyx lobes ovate to lanceolate, apex acute or dentate.   (10)
       
10 (9) Leaf blade incised to pinnately lobed; pin flower style exserted from corolla tube   87 Primula chionata
+ Leaf blade irregularly coarse dentate; pin flower style slightly exserted   88 Primula chionogenes
       
11 (8) Leaves efarinose, with scattered minute reddish brown or blackish glands abaxially   85 Primula calthifolia
+ Leaves densely yellow farinose abaxially.   (12)
       
12 (11) Calyx 9-10 mm, parted to 2/3   83 Primula jucunda
+ Calyx 5-7.5 mm, parted to middle.   (13)
       
13 (12) Scapes 3-10 cm, usually shorter than leaf rosette; pin flower style ca. as long as corolla tube   84 Primula hilaris
+ Scapes 7-18(-35) cm, longer than leaf rosette; pin flower style exserted from corolla tube   86 Primula strumosa
       
14 (7) At least some leaf blades cordate to truncate at base.   (15)
+ Leaf blade attenuate at base.   (17)
       
15 (14) Leaf blade obtuse at apex, regularly crenulate; calyx efarinose, glandular   91 Primula tsariensis
+ Leaf blade acute at apex, acutely dentate; calyx ± farinose.   (16)
       
16 (15) Calyx parted to 1/3, lobes triangular to subrectangular   89 Primula griffithii
+ Calyx parted below middle, lobes lanceolate   90 Primula tanneri
       
17 (14) Pedicel 1-3 mm.   (18)
+ Pedicel at least 5 mm.   (19)
       
18 (17) Flowers homostylous; stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube   98 Primula hookeri
+ Flowers heterostylous; stamens in thrum flowers inserted toward apex of corolla tube   99 Primula bomiensis
       
19 (17) Corolla lobes crenate or entire.   (20)
+ Corolla lobes emarginate.   (21)
       
20 (19) Leaf blade irregularly lobulate to pinnatifid, lobules denticulate; calyx parted to 1/3   96 Primula sonchifolia
+ Leaf blade erose-denticulate; calyx parted to middle   97 Primula whitei
       
21 (19) Leaf blade pinnately incised or lobed; calyx lobes entire or dentate   87 Primula chionata
+ Leaf blade crenulate or dentate; calyx lobes entire.   (22)
       
22 (21) Plants farinose; pin flower style exserted from corolla tube   92 Primula calderiana
+ Plants efarinose; pin flower style reaching upper 1/2 of corolla tube.   (23)
       
23 (22) Corolla exannulate, tube pilose inside   95 Primula tongolensis
+ Corolla annulate, tube glabrous inside.   (24)
       
24 (23) Scapes with a solitary flower; corolla limb to 3.5 cm wide   93 Primula chamaedoron
+ Scapes with 5-15 flowers; corolla limb 2-3 cm wide   94 Primula chamaethauma
       
25 (6) Corolla yellow.   (26)
+ Corolla lilac or violet.   (29)
       
26 (25) Corolla lobes emarginate at apex   173 Primula calliantha
+ Corolla lobes entire or crenate.   (27)
       
27 (26) Plants dwarf, scapes less than 10 cm; leaf blade linear-lanceolate, white farinose   175 Primula crocifolia
+ Plants more robust, scapes to 20 cm; leaf blade not as above.   (28)
       
28 (27) Calyx lobes lanceolate to sublinear; corolla lobes with 4-6 teeth at apex   176 Primula elongata
+ Calyx lobes elliptic to oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate; corolla lobes entire   177 Primula orbicularis
       
29 (25) Corolla lobes deeply emarginate at apex.   (30)
+ Corolla lobes entire.   (33)
       
30 (29) Plants white farinose; calyx lobes lanceolate, apex acute.   (31)
+ Plants yellow farinose; calyx lobes oblong, apex acute to subobtuse.   (32)
       
31 (30) Bracts leaflike; leaf blade lanceolate to oblanceolate, entire to denticulate   165 Primula macrophylla
+ Bracts not leaflike; leaf blade elliptic tooblong-elliptic, distinctly denticulate   171 Primula farreriana
       
32 (30) Leaf blade lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, finely denticulate, apex acute to subobtuse; calyx lobes oblong-oblanceolate; capsules 1.5-3 cm   172 Primula megalocarpa
+ Leaf blade narrowly ovate to obovate-oblong or oblanceolate, crenulate, apex rounded to obtuse; calyx lobes narrowly oblong; capsules 1-1.3 cm   173 Primula calliantha
       
33 (29) Leaves efarinose at anthesis.   (34)
+ Leaves conspicuously farinose at anthesis.   (37)
       
34 (33) Leaf blade elliptic to oblong-ovate or oblong-lanceolate, ± regularly blunt denticulate   159 Primula nivalis
+ Leaf blade lanceolate to oblanceolate, subentire or obscurely denticulate.   (35)
       
35 (34) Corolla limb 1-1.3 cm in diam., lobes puberulent on both sides   160 Primula melanantha
+ Corolla limb 1.6-3 cm in diam., lobes glabrous.   (36)
       
36 (35) Corolla lobes lanceolate to narrowly oblong, paler in color than tube   161 Primula woodwardii
+ Corolla lobes oblong, same color as or darker than tube   24 Populus purdomii
       
37 (33) Farina yellow.   (38)
+ Farina white.   (41)
       
38 (37) Calyx parted to base, lobes lanceolate   168 Primula ninguida
+ Calyx parted to 2/3, lobes narrowly oblong to lanceolate.   (39)
       
39 (38) Farina bright yellow; pin flower style or thrum flower stamens reaching mouth of corolla tube   169 Primula chionantha
+ Farina pale yellow; pin flower style or thrum flower stamens reaching middle of corolla tube.   (40)
       
40 (39) Calyx lobes oblong to lanceolate, apex subacute; corolla lobes oblong-elliptic   170 Primula sinoplantaginea
+ Calyx lobes lanceolate to oblong, apex subobtuse; corolla lobes suborbicular to obovate   165 Primula macrophylla
       
41 (37) Calyx parted to near middle.   (42)
+ Calyx parted below middle.   (44)
       
42 (41) Leaf blade elliptic to oblong-ovate or oblong-lanceolate, ± regularly denticulate   159 Primula nivalis
+ Leaf blade lanceolate to oblanceolate, entire or obscurely denticulate.   (43)
       
43 (42) Pin flower style or thrum flower stamens reaching mouth of corolla tube   163 Primula melanops
+ Pin flower style or thrum flower stamens slightly longer than calyx   162 Primula purdomii
       
44 (41) Leaf blade linear, 2-4(-6) mm wide   164 Primula graminifolia
+ Leaf blade not linear, at least 1 cm wide.   (45)
       
45 (44) Leaf blade lanceolate to oblanceolate, apex acute to obtuse; capsules longer than calyx   165 Primula macrophylla
+ Leaf blade (at least of outer leaves) elliptic to oblong, apex subrounded; capsules ca. as long as calyx.   (46)
       
46 (45) Calyx parted to base, lobes spreading, lanceolate   166 Primula youngeriana
+ Calyx parted to 2/3-3/4, lobes erect, oblong-lanceolate   167 Primula russeola

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