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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Primulaceae

8. Primula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 142. 1753.

报春花属 bao chun hua shu

Primula florindae

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs perennial, rarely annual, glabrous or pubescent, often farinose. Leaves simple, forming a rosette. Flowers usually heterostylous with pin (with longer styles) and thrum (with shorter styles) flowers; sometimes homostylous, in umbellate, racemose, subcapitate, or spicate inflorescences on scapes, with bracts; rarely solitary, scapes undeveloped. Calyx campanulate or cylindric, sometimes leaflike, 5-toothed. Corolla tube cylindric, not constricted at throat; limb 5-lobed, spreading or campanulate; lobes 2-cleft, margin entire. Stamens inserted on corolla tube; filaments very short; anthers obtuse. Ovary superior. Capsule globose, ovoid, or cylindric, dehiscing by valves, rarely with an operculum or crumbling; seeds numerous.

Approximately 500 species, mostly indigenous to the N temperate zone, with only a few outliers on the mountainous regions of Africa (Ethiopia), tropical Asia (Java and Sumatra), and South America. About 300 species are native to China.

Many species are imperfectly known, sometimes collected only once. This is reflected occasionally by missing details on pin or thrum morphology, fruiting characteristics, or ecology.

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The 300 species are represented by 24 sections according to C. M. Hu: 1. Sect. Monocarpicae Franchet ex Pax: spp. 1--13. 2. Sect. Obconicolisteri I. B. Balfour: spp. 14--23. 3. Sect. Cortusoides I. B. Balfour: spp. 24--40. 4. Sect. Malvacea I. B. Balfour: spp. 41--47. 5. Sect. Auganthus (Link) Pax ex I. B. Balfour: spp. 48--50. 6. Sect. Pycnoloba I. B. Balfour: sp. 51. 7. Sect. Ranunculoides Chen & C. M. Hu: spp. 52--53. 8. Sect. Primula: sp. 54. 9. Sect. Carolinella (Hemsley) Pax: spp. 55--62. 10. Sect. Bullatae Pax: spp. 63--66. 11. Sect. Petiolares Pax: spp. 67--115. 12. Sect. Proliferae Pax: spp. 116--134. 13. Sect. Amethystina I. B. Balfour: spp. 135--142. 14. Sect. Sikkimensis I. B. Balfour: spp. 143--150. 15. Sect. Crystallophlomis Rupr.: spp. 151--191. 16. Sect. Cordifoliae Pax: spp. 192--196. 17. Sect. Aleuritia Duby: spp. 197--242. Spp. 238--242 are recognized in Europe and North America as Sect. Armerina. 18. Sect. Minutissimae Pax: spp. 243--259. 19. Sect. Souliei I. B. Balfour ex W. W. Smith & Forrest: spp. 260--265. 20. Sect. Dryadifolia I. B. Balfour: spp. 266--268. 21. Sect. Denticulata Watt: spp. 269--274. 22. Sect. Capitatae Pax: spp. 275--276. 23. Sect. Muscarioides I. B. Balfour: spp. 277--289. 24. Sect. Soldanelloides Pax: spp. 290--300.


Key 5

1 Calyx lobes leaflike, pubescent on both sides   45 Primula malvacea
+ Calyx lobes not leaflike, glabrous inside.   (2)
       
2 (1) Corolla yellow, in compact umbels   14 Primula ambita
+ Corolla rose to purple, in lax umbels.   (3)
       
3 (2) Calyx lobes ovate, deeply emarginate, margin denticulate   15 Primula oreodoxa
+ Calyx lobes triangular to ovate-triangular, margin entire.   (4)
       
4 (3) Leaf blade suborbicular to reniform, as wide as long or nearly so.   (5)
+ Leaf blade ovate to elliptic or oblong, conspicuously longer than wide.   (8)
       
5 (4) Scapes and petioles with tawny long hairs.   (6)
+ Scapes and petioles sparsely pubescent or subglabrous; leaves glabrous or nearly so abaxially.   (7)
       
6 (5) Leaves pilose; flowers homostylous or heterostylous   20 Primula obconica
+ Leaves strigillose; flowers heterostylous   21 Primula rubifolia
       
7 (5) Corolla limb 1.5-2.5 mm wide, lobes at least 5 mm wide   22 Primula sinolisteri
+ Corolla limb 5-8 mm wide, lobes 1.5-2 mm wide   23 Primula asarifolia
       
8 (4) Leaf blade 11-13-lobulate; flowers homostylous   16 Primula dumicola
+ Leaf blade sinuate-dentate; flowers heterostylous.   (9)
       
9 (8) Scapes shorter than leaf rosette, only slightly longer than pedicel   17 Primula barbicalyx
+ Scapes longer than leaf rosette, much longer than pedicel.   (10)
       
10 (9) Leaf blade 0.8-2 cm wide; calyx 2.8-4 mm, parted nearly to middle   18 Primula densa
+ Leaf blade at least 3 cm wide; calyx 5-10 mm, parted scarcely to 1/3.   (11)
       
11 (10) Reticulate veins of leaf blade markedly elevated abaxially; corolla limb 5-8 mm wide   19 Primula vilmoriniana
+ Reticulate veins of leaf blade smooth or only slightly raised abaxially; corolla limb 15-25 mm wide   20 Primula obconica

List of Keys

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