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Pakistan | Family List | Juncaceae

Juncus Linn., Sp.Pl. 325. 1753. Gen.Pl.ed.5.152.1754; Boiss., Fl.Or.5:350.1881; Hook.f., Fl.Brit. Ind. 6:392.1892; Buchen. in Engler, Pflanzenr. 25.135.1906; Cooke, Fl.Bombay Pres. 3:308. 1906; Krecz. & Gontsch. in Kom., Fl.U.R.S.S. 3:507. 1935; S.Snogerup in Rech. f., Fl. Iranica, 75:1.1971.

Juncus concinus

Credit: M. Rafique

Perennial, rarely annual herbs, usually rhizomatous, often tufted. Leaves either all radical or both radical and few cauline, flat to cylindrical, glabrous, with or with-out transverse septa, sheaths open, auricled or not. Inflorescence terminal or seemingly lateral with the basal bract often leaf-like and apparently continuous with the stem; floral bracts much smaller, hyaline to submembranous. Flowers small, clustered, few or solitary, sessile or subsessile, often brownish or greenish. Perianth segments 6, glumaceous, equal or the inner ones shorter. Stames 6 or 3, free or somewhat connate to the base of perianth segments, filaments filiform, usually longer than anthers. Capsule often brown, shortly to conspicuously beaked, 1.3-celled; seeds minute, usually many on parietal placentas, generally confined to the middle of the valves, ovoid to oblong, faintly to conspicuously striate, yellowish to brownish, sometimes tailed, often mucilaginous on wetting.

A genus of over 200 species, represented in Pakistan by c .16 species, chiefly of wet habitats in mountainous regions.

Plants of this genus are called ‘Rushes’ and the tall species may be used in making mats, baskets and netting chairs etc.

1 Individual flower subtended by a pair of short, hyaline bracteoles at the base   (2)
+ Individual flower without subtending bracteoles   (4)
2 (1) Annual. Flowers solitary (sometimes 2-3 together) and somewhat distant on the lax inflorescence   Juncus bufonius
+ Perennials. Flowers crowded on a short, simple or branched, terminal or seemingly lateral inflorescence   (3)
3 (2) Inflorescence seemingly lateral. Leaves basal only, usually reduced to obtuse sheaths   Juncus inflexus
+ Inflorescence terminal. Leaves basal and 1-2 cauline, blade bearing   Juncus compressus
4 (1) Inflorescence paniculate, seemingly lateral. Flowers mostly in groups of twos or threes   Juncus maritimus
+ Flowers in ± capitate heads   (5)
5 (4) Inflorescence usually of a single terminal head (very rarely more than 1)   (6)
+ Inflorescence branched, compound, of usually 2-many, terminal heads   (11)
6 (5) Cauline leaves present, 1-3   (7)
+ Cauline leaves absent   (9)
7 (6) Stem filiform with 1 cauline leaf. Flowers 3-5(7) in a head, 4-5 mm long. Capsules not exserted; seeds hardly tailed   Juncus benghalensis
+ Stem slender, 1-3-leaved. Flowers usually 8-20 in a head, 6-7 mm long. Capsules ± exserted; seeds tailed   (8)
8 (7) Anthers c. 1.5 mm long. Capsules ± straight   Juncus membranaceus
+ Anthers 2-3 mm long. Capsules ± arcuate   Juncus concinus
9 (6) Capsules 6-7.5 mm long, c. twice as long as the perianth. Flowering head usually 2-3 (-4)- flowered   Juncus triglumis
+ Capsules 4-5 mm long, as long as the perianth. Flowering head usually 4-8-flowered   (10)
10 (9) Lowest subtending bract usually much exceeding the whitish flowering head. Plants greenish, loosely tufted   Juncus leucomelas
+ Lowest subtending bract not or slightly exceeding the brown flowering head. Plants deep green, densely caespitose   Juncus thomsonii
11 (5) Inflorescence of 2-3(-5) heads, usually of unequal sizes   (12)
+ Inflorescence usually of many heads, ± of equal sizes   (13)
12 (11) Flowering heads seemingly superposed or shortly stalked. Capsules ± exceeding the perianth, 5-9 mm long; seeds whitish-tailed at the ends   Juncus sphacelatus
+ Flowering heads umbellate, conspicuously stalked, whitish. Capsules not exceeding the perianth, c. 2.5(-3) mm long; seeds not whitish-tailed   Juncus elegans
13 (11) Plant robust, with 1, sharply tipped cauline leaf, about as long and thick as the stem; basal leaves reduced to sheaths only. Flowers usually 20-40 in each head, c. 2 mm long. Capsules not or hardly exceeding the perianth, less than 20-seeded   Juncus punctorius
+ Plants slender, with 2-10 cauline, linear or filiform leaves; basal leaves with a blade. Flowers 4-12 in each head, 2.5-4(-4.5) mm long. Capsules ± exceeding the perianth, 30-40-seeded   (14)
14 (13) Stamens 6. Leaves conspicuously septate, terete, curved. Perianth segments lanceolate, acute to subobtuse. Capsules usually oblong-ovoid, abruptly beaked or pyramidate   (15)
+ Stamens 3 (occasionally more). Leaves flat, linear or filiform. Perianth segments linear-lanceolate to subulate, vary acute. Capsules conical with acute tip, beaked   Juncus prismatocarpus
15 (14) Flowering heads usually semiglobose; smaller. Capsules oblong-ovoid abruptly beaked   Juncus articulatus
+ Flowering head globose, longer. Capsules pyramidate   Juncus kotschyi

  • List of lower taxa


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