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Pakistan | Family List | Labiatae

33. Salvia L., Sp. Pl. 23. 1753. L., Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 15. 1754; Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 262. 1848; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 658. 1885; Briquet in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 1, 4, 3A: 270. 1896; Peter-Stibal, Revision der indischen and tibetanischen Arten der Gattung Salvia, in Feddes Repert. 39: 173-186. 1936; Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. 14, 1: 104. 1940; Pobedimova in Komarov, Fl. URSS 21: 244. 1954; Hedge, Studies in the flora of Afghanistan III: an account of Salvia, in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 26: 407. 1965; Hedge, Observations on the mucilage of Salvia fruits, in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 30: 79-85. 1970; Hedge in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 150: 403. 1982.

I.C. Hedge


Credit: M. Rafiq

  • Arischrada Pobed.
  • Schraderia Heister ex Medikus
  • Stenarrhena D. Don

    Shrubs, subshrubs, perennial, biennial or rarely annual herbs, usually aromatic. Stems erect, leafy or not, usually with simple eglandular hairs below and glandular hairs above. Leaves undivided, crenate, deeply lobed to pinnatisect, petiolate or subsessile. Inflorescence of few- to many-flowered verticillasters, distant or approximating. Bracts usually distinct from leaves, sometimes showy. Calyx tubular to infundibuliform, bilabiate, slightly or much expanding in fruit, 10-15-veined; upper lip shortly or scarcely 3-toothed; lower lip equally 2-toothed. Corolla bilabiate; upper lip falcate or ± straight, entire or bifid; lower lip 3-lobed, median lobe usually larger and concave; tube straight or curved, ventricose or not, invaginated and with a small internal scale (squamula) or not, annulate or not. Stamens 2, with a large fertile theca at upper end and a usually much smaller fertile theca or a sterile dolabriform plate at the lower end; connectives clearly separating the thecae; stamens articulating at the point of attachment of filament and connective (in ours); staminodes usually present, very small. Style bifid with unequal flattened or terete lobes. Nutlets 4, glabrous ellipsoid to ± spherical, smooth, veined or not, usually mucilaginous on wetting.

    About 800 species throughout the Old and New World. SW Asia and C. Asia are important centres for this very distinct genus. The structure of the stamens is quite different from any other genus in the Labiatae.

    In addition to the 16 native species in our area, several cultivated species, all widely grown in the warmer parts of the world, can be seen in gardens. These are dealt with after the main account of the native species.

    Species of uncertain status

    Salvia halaensis Vicary in Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 16. 1165. 1847.

    This was described from the Hala range (Pakistan, Sind, G4) by Vicary, without a specimen being cited. Despite many attempts to trace specimens, the type specimen (if it mists) has not been found, nor have any specimens bearing that name. The description is not detailed enough to convey a clear picture of the plant, and its identity remains unknown, but it is almost certainly within the Salvia aegyptiaca - Salvia sanrolinifolia group. Both these species are known from Sind, and both names antedate Salvia halaensis. Vicary’s description of the calyx as "lanatopilose" would not fit Salvia aegyptiaca (which he also cites from the Hala range), but would agree with Salvia santolinifolia; he remarks at the start of his paper ("Some notes on the botany of Shade") that his specimens were collected between December and February "when I was accompanying an army in an enemy’s country"!

    Cultivated Species

    Several species of Salvia are grown in our area as ornamentals for their showy flowers or striking habit. R. R. Stewart (Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 630-632. 1972) lists most of those briefly described below; some others may also be grown in gardens or parks. No herbarium specimens from Pakistan have been seen and the frequency of their cultivation is not known.

    Salvia coccinea Etlinger, De Salvia 23. 1777. (Fig. 25, E-H).

    Stems with long white hairs. Leaves ± triangular. Calyx often dark or violet-coloured. Corolla scarlet up to 25 mm. Stamens and styles clearly exserted. Native of tropical America.

    Salvia farinacea Benth., Lab. Gen. et Sp. 274: 1833. (Fig. 25, A-D).

    Stems puberulous below. Leaves often clustered at nodes, eglandularpubescent or almost glabrous, gland-dotted. Calyx short tubular, densely white- or lilac-lanate. Corolla white, violet or purple, 10-15 mm. Native of New Mexico, Texas.

    Salvia lamiifolia Jacq., Hon. Schoenbr. 3: 37, t. 318. 1798.

    Stems sparsely pubescent. Leaves elegantly rounded-cordate, almost glabrous, dark above, pale below. Corolla purplish blue, c. 15 mm long. Listed by Stewart (l.c.) but probably less commonly grown that the others. Native to the West Indies.

    Salvia leucantha Cay., Icons 1: 16. t. 24. 1791.

    Stems white-lanate below, densely violet-lanate above. Leaves whitelanate below, almost glabrous above. Calyx strikingly violet-lanate. Corolla white, c. 20 mm. Native of Mexico.

    Salvia officinalis L., Sp. Pl. 23. 1753.

    Aromatic shrub with greyish rugose oblong lanceolate leaves and purplish c. 25 mm corollas. The common or culinary sage has sometimes been cultivated (e.g in Srinagar) as a kitchen herb. A Mediterranean native.

    Salvia splendens Sellow ex Roem. & Schultes, Syst., Mantiss. 1: 185. 1822.

    Stems puberulous. Leaves regularly ovate. Verticillasters 2(-4)-flowered. Bracts, calyces and corollas bright red or scarlet; flowers 40-50 mm long. A native of Brazil.

    Salvia viridis L., Sp. Pl. 24. 1753 (syn. Salvia horminum L.)

    An erect annual with rather inconspicuous flowers but large coloured bracts/floral leaves which form a showy white, pink or violet coma overtopping the inflorescence. A Mediterranean species.

    1 Dwarf subshrubs or suffruticose peren-nials with corollas less than 12 mm; leaves narrow (less than c. 10 mm) often convolute and lobed at margins   (2)
    + Annual, perennial or suffruticose herbs with corollas 12-50 mm; leaves more than 10 mm wide, flat at margins   (6)
    2 (1) Stems almost leafless with very short eglandular hairs; calyx with long eglandular hairs   6 Salvia macilenta
    + Stems leafy with short to long eglandular or glandular hairs; calyx with long eglandular or short glandular hairs   (3)
    3 (2) Calyx with numerous capitate glandular hairs and few eglandular hairs   8 Salvia aegyptiaca
    + Calyx with numerous very long white eglandular hairs and few or no capitate glandular hairs   (4)
    4 (3) Leaves ovate-rhomboid, margins flat or scarcely convolute   7 Salvia tebesana
    + Leaves obovate to linear with clearly convoluted margins   (5)
    5 (4) Corolla 5-6 mm long; leaves not confert-ed in axillary clusters, white Canescent below   4 Salvia santolinifolia
    + Corolla 10-12 mm long; leaves conferted in short axillary clusters, dark green   5 Salvia trichocalycina
    6 (1) Annual with 2.5-4 mm corollas   9 Salvia plebeia
    + Perennials, subshrubs or shrubs, with corollas more than 12 mm   (7)
    7 (6) Leaves pinnate; fruiting calyx much enlarged and membranous-reticulate; suffruticose   3 Salvia bucharica
    + Leaves not divided; fruiting calyx little enlarged, not membranous-reticulate   (8)
    8 (7) Leaves densely white pannose-lanate on abaxial surface   (9)
    + Leaves not pannose-lanate abaxially   (10)
    9 (8) Leaves mostly clustered at base of stem, linear-oblong to oblong; inflorescence usually unbranched; flowers dark violet or blue   10 Salvia lanata
    + Leaves clustered basally or not, ovate to oblong-ovate; inflorescence branched; flowers lilac-violet to white   12 Salvia moocroftiana
    10 (8) Lower thecae anther-like, bearing at least some fertile pollen   (11)
    + Lower thecae dolabriform, flat, sterile   (12)
    11 (10) Leaves broadly ovate to suborbicular, basally rounded; shrub; corolla to 25 mm   2 Salvia cabulica
    + Leaves broadly ovate, basally cordate to hastate, herb; corolla to 40-50 mm   1 Salvia hians
    12 (10) Leaves hastate-sagittate at base; flowers yellow   15 Salvia nubicola
    + Leaves cordate or rounded at base; flowers white, pink or violet, sometimes with a yellow lip   (13)
    13 (12) Calyx tubular; tube of corolla straight, not invaginated, without a squamula   11 Salvia macrosiphon
    + Calyx campanulate to tubular campanulate; tube of corolla invaginated, squamulate or not   (14)
    14 (13) Upper lip of fruiting calyx concave, bisulcate; corolla violet blue to lilac   16 Salvia virgata
    + Upper lip of fruiting calyx not concave, bisulcate; corolla lilac, pink, or white   (15)
    15 (14) Bracts membranous, as long as or longer than flowers [Kashmir]   13 Salvia sclarea
    + Bracts herbaceous, shorter than flowers [Chitral].   14 Salvia rhytidea

  • List of lower taxa


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