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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae


春黄菊族 chun huang ju zu

Authors: Yourun Lin(Ling Yuou-ruen), Zhu Shi, Christopher J. Humphries & Michael G. Gilbert

Shrubs, subshrubs, or annual or perennial herbs, aromatic; indumentum of short biseriate glandular hairs (glands) and uniseriate simple, T-shaped or stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, fasciculate or in basal rosettes, pinnatisect, pinnatifid, lobed, serrulate, serrate, or dentate, rarely entire, rarely succulent, base sometimes with stipulelike auricles ("pseudostipules"). Synflorescences mostly terminal, sometimes axillary, cymose or racemose, often paniculate, often flat-topped. Capitula heterogamous, with marginal female florets and central bisexual or male disk florets, or homogamous with only bisexual tubular florets. Phyllaries in 2-7 rows, overlapping, usually with scarious margin and apices. Receptacle paleate or epaleate, rarely pilose or hirsute. Marginal female florets radiate, or corollas tubular to filiform, often 2-toothed, or absent, and capitula disciform, fertile or sterile; corolla yellow or white, less often purplish, pink, orange, or red. Disk florets bisexual or male, tubular or funnel-shaped, usually yellow, rarely whitish, purplish, or red, usually 4- or 5-lobed. Anthers mostly rounded, rarely shortly tailed at base, apical appendage ovate or triangular to subulate. Pollen with or without spines. Style base slender or bulbous; style branches usually free (rarely fused in functionally male florets), usually linear, rarely wider, with apex truncate, penicillate. Achenes often obovoid, obconical, or cylindric, sometimes dorsiventrally flattened, apex rounded or truncate, true pappus absent, sometimes with a pappuslike corona of rather few scarious or bristlelike scales, or with an auricle, usually adaxial.

About 110 genera and ca. 1,750 species: worldwide, mainly concentrated in C Asia, the Mediterranean region, and S Africa; 29 genera (two endemic, four introduced) and 364 species (138 endemic, ten introduced) in China.

This tribe includes well-known vegetables (Glebionis carinata, G. coronaria, and G. segetum) and famous ornamental plants (most notably "Chrysanthemum grandiflorum"; see note under Chrysanthemum). Insecticides are extracted from some species (e.g., Tanacetum (Pyrethrum) cinerariifolium). Other species are very important medicinally (e.g., Artemisia annua, the source of the important anti-malarial drug artemisinin) while some are significant forage plants in dry regions.

The generic sequence follows Oberprieler et al. (in Kadereit & C. Jeffrey, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 8: 342-373. 2007).

Records of Anthemis tinctoria Linnaeus (Sp. Pl. 2: 896. 1753; Cota tinctoria (Linnaeus) J. Gay ex Gussone, Fl. Sicul. Sin. 2: 867. 1844-1845; 春黄菊 chun huang ju), Argyranthemum frutescens (Linnaeus) Schultz Bipontinus (in Webb & Berthelot, Hist. Nat. Iles Canaries 2: 264. 1844; Chrysanthemum frutescens Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 887. 1753; Pyrethrum frutescens (Linnaeus) Willdenow; 木茼蒿 mu tong hao), Chamaemelum nobile (Linnaeus) Allioni (Fl. Pedem. 1: 185. 1785; Anthemis nobilis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 894. 1753; 果香菊 guo xiang ju), and Coleostephus myconis (Linnaeus) Cassini (Dict. Sci. Nat. 41: 43. 1826; Chrysanthemum myconis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 1254. 1763; Myconia chrysanthemum Schultz Bipontinus; 鞘冠菊 qiao guan ju) in FRPS (76(1): 7, 9, 20, 74. 1983) were based on cultivated ornamental plants.

1 Capitula radiate; ray florets often conspicuous, but sometimes not so   (2)
+ Capitula discoid with all florets bisexual, tubular, or capitula disciform with marginal florets inconspicuous, corollas narrowly tubular to filiform or absent   (15)
2 (1) Receptacle scales present at least near margins of receptacle   (3)
+ Receptacle scales absent, but receptacle sometimes hairy   (4)
3 (2) Capitula in ± flat-topped panicles; involucres 2-7(-9) mm in diam.; mostly wild plants, only occasionally cultivated as medicinal plants.   167 Achillea
+ Capitula solitary, long pedunculate; involucres 7-15 mm in diam.; mostly grown as ornamentals and only occasionally found as an escape.   168 Anthemis
4 (2) Achene winged: marginal achenes 2- or 3-winged, disk achenes 1- or 2-winged; ray florets mostly bright yellow; plants often grown as vegetables or ornamentals.   172 Glebionis
+ Achene not winged; ray florets mostly white or pink, less often yellow (Brachanthemum, some species of Chrysanthemum)   (5)
5 (4) Pappus or corona absent, but achenes sometimes with an obtuse rim or with ribs apically projected   (6)
+ Pappuslike corona present   (10)
6 (5) Achene with ribs projected at apex   (7)
+ Achene with ribs not projected at apex   (8)
7 (6) Marsh plants; ray florets sterile.   163 Leucanthemella
+ Grassland plants, often grown as ornamentals and only occasionally found as an escape; ray florets fertile.   173 Leucanthemum
8 (6) Dwarf shrubs or subshrubs; involucres campanulate, hemispheric, or obconical; ray florets yellow, lamina ovate, to 3 mm.   149 Brachanthemum
+ Herbs, annual or perennial; involucres shallowly cup-shaped; ray florets white, red, or violet, less often yellow (some species of Chrysanthemum), lamina oblong, often more than 5 mm   (9)
9 (8) Perennial herbs or subshrubs; achenes terete, ribs 5-8, uniformly spaced, rather obscure.   150 Chrysanthemum
+ Annual herbs; achenes dorsiventrally compressed, ribs 3-5, mainly adaxial, slender but distinct.   171 Matricaria
10 (5) Corona of separate scales or bristles   (11)
+ Corona cupular, shallowly or deeply divided or divided to base   (13)
11 (10) Corona scales obovate, brown tipped.   158 Richteria
+ Corona scales bristlelike or subulate   (12)
12 (11) Corona scales many, bristlelike, with flat and palmate bases.   156 Allardia
+ Corona scales 4-6, subulate, unequal, mainly abaxial.   165 Opisthopappus
13 (10) Achene with multicellular hairs between ribs.   164 Microcephala
+ Achene glabrous   (14)
14 (13) Achene with 5-10 equal ribs, without resin sacs.   169 Tanacetum
+ Achene with both thick and thin ribs, abaxially and apically with distinct resin sacs.   170 Tripleurospermum
15 (1) Capitula heterogamous, disciform: marginal florets female or neuter, corolla tubular or narrowly tubular or absent, disk florets male or bisexual, tubular   (16)
+ Capitula homogamous: all florets bisexual, tubular   (25)
16 (15) Marginal female florets in many rows   (17)
+ Marginal female florets in 1 row   (18)
17 (16) Capitula pedunculate, terminal; achenes without persistent style.   145 Cotula
+ Capitula sessile, axillary; achenes with persistent style.   146 Soliva
18 (16) Capitula in spikes or racemes, often secund, often grouped into panicles   (19)
+ Capitula in terminal, rounded to flat-topped panicles, clusters, or solitary   (21)
19 (18) Pappuslike corona present.   153 Crossostephium
+ Corona absent   (20)
20 (19) Marginal florets female, disk florets bisexual, fertile; achenes all over receptacle; leaf blade very variable but never pectinate-pinnatisect.   151 Artemisia
+ Marginal florets partly female, disk florets bisexual, fertile and sterile; achenes in a row around base of receptacle; leaf blade pinnatisect with ± pectinately arranged lateral lobes.   155 Neopallasia
21 (18) Corolla exterior stellate hairy or apically densely pilose with erect straight hairs   (22)
+ Corolla exterior glabrous or with lower part only sparsely pilose   (23)
22 (21) Annual herbs; corolla exterior apically densely pilose with erect straight hairs.   148 Ajaniopsis
+ Subshrubs; corolla exterior with stellate hairs.   162 Kaschgaria
23 (21) Achene 5-10-ribbed, corona present, 0.1-0.4 mm.   169 Tanacetum
+ Achene 2-6-striate, corona absent   (24)
24 (23) Florets all fertile; achenes 4 or 5(or 6)-striate/ribbed.   147 Ajania
+ Central disk florets sterile; achenes 2-striate.   154 Filifolium
25 (15) Receptacle scales present at least near margins of receptacle; stems 1 to few, thick with wide pith   (26)
+ Receptacle scales absent; stems rarely solitary, not conspicuously thickened with wide pith   (27)
26 (25) Stem densely dirty white lanate in lower part, glabrescent in upper part; synflorescence corymbose; involucres ca. 5 mm in diam.   159 Handelia
+ Stem densely arachnoid hairy; synflorescence long pedunculate, umbel-like; involucres 6-9 mm in diam.   160 Pseudohandelia
27 (25) Corona absent   (28)
+ Corona present, cupular or with distinct scales   (32)
28 (27) Capitula many, in elongated spikes or racemes, often grouped into panicles.   152 Seriphidium
+ Capitula many or few, in glomerules or flat-topped panicles   (29)
29 (28) Subshrubs, 40-80 cm tall, branches divaricate, sometimes ± spine-tipped; capitula solitary.   149 Brachanthemum
+ Herbs or subshrubs, branches not divaricate nor spine-tipped; capitula in corymbs or umbels of 3 or more   (30)
30 (29) Annual herbs; corolla bowl-shaped.   166 Stilpnolepis
+ Biennial or perennial herbs or subshrubs; corolla not bowl-shaped   (31)
31 (30) Herbs, stem often solitary, robust, 20-100 cm tall, unbranched below synflorescence, dying after flowering; synflorescence long pedunculate, umbel-like.   160 Pseudohandelia
+ Herbs perennial or stemless, small subshrubs, or cushion plants, rarely more than 40 cm tall; synflorescence dense or lax ± flat-topped panicles.   161 Hippolytia
32 (27) Achene with distinct resin sacs.   170 Tripleurospermum
+ Achene without resin sacs   (33)
33 (32) Perennial herbs or subshrubs; achene with 5-12 equally arranged ribs   (34)
+ Annual herbs; achene with 3-5 adaxial ribs   (35)
34 (33) Capitula usually solitary at apex of stem; florets yellow.   157 Cancrinia
+ Capitula many or several, in flat-topped panicle, rarely solitary and then florets orange-red.   169 Tanacetum
35 (33) Capitula usually solitary at apex of stem; florets constricted in middle.   164 Microcephala
+ Capitula many or several, in lax corymb or solitary at apex of lateral branches; florets not constricted.   171 Matricaria

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