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57. Pedicularis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 607. 1753.

马先蒿属 ma xian hao shu

Yang Han-bi; Noel H. Holmgren, Robert R. Mill

Pedicularis chumbica

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs perennial or annual, rarely biennial, hemiparasitic. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled, usually pinnatifid to 1- or 2-pinnatisect, rarely entire or dentate. Lower leaves usually long petiolate; upper leaves often ± sessile. Inflorescences terminal or flowers axillary; bracts usually leaflike. Calyx tubular to campanulate, often ± bilabiate, usually deeply cleft anteriorly, (2--)5-lobed. Corolla purple, red, yellow, or white, strongly bilabiate; upper lip (galea) hooded, enclosing anthers, laterally compressed, rounded or truncate, or terminating in teeth or in a beak; lower lip 3-lobed, usually spreading, external to upper lip in bud. Stamens 4, didynamous; filaments glabrous or pubescent; anthers mucronate or not. Stigma capitate. Capsule moderately compressed or not, loculicidal. Seeds numerous, reticulate or costate.

About 600 species: best represented in the mountains of SW China and widespread in the frigid and alpine zones of the northern hemisphere; 352 species (271 endemic) occur in China.

From the limited available data,the species of Pedicularis in China are pollinated by bumblebees gathering nectar and/or pollen on nectariferous non-beaked species, and pollen only,by scraping or vibrating,on beaked species including those with long corolla tubes (Macior, L. W. 1988. Plant Species Biol. 3: 61--66.; Macior, L. W. & S. K. Sood. 1991. Plant Species Biol. 6: 75--81.; Macior, L. W., pers. comm.).

The rank of series has been traditionally used in Pedicularis since the time of Prain's work (Ann. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 3: 1--196. 1890). Sections (and subgenera) have also been used (e.g., by Bunge in Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 3: 409--433. 1844; Li, H. L. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 101: 1--214. 1949; Yamazaki, T. 1988. A revision of the genus Pedicularis in Nepal. in: Ohba, H. & Malla, S.B. (eds.), The Himalayan Plants 1: 91--161, and others). Because series names have been used widely (e.g., Tsoong, P. C., 1955, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 4: 103--147; Tsoong, P.C., 1963, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 68) but sectional names only in revisions covering limited areas (e.g., Yamazaki, T. 1988) and since not all species have been assigned to sections yet, the rank of series is used here.


1 Leaves opposite or whorled (or in ser. 26, 84, 86, 87 alternate apically).   (2)
+ Leaves alternate or at least alternate apically (or in ser. 1, 30, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 45, 67, 102 rarely with pseudo-opposite or opposite leaves).   (62)
       
2 (1) Leaves opposite or occasionally alternate.   (3)
+ Leaves usually in whorls of 3 or 4.   (30)
       
3 (2) Corolla galea beakless.   (4)
+ Corolla galea beaked.   (13)
       
4 (3) Corolla galea toothless.   (5)
+ Corolla galea toothed.   (8)
       
5 (4) Leaves lanceolate to linear.   (6)
+ Leaves ± ovate.   (7)
       
6 (5) Leaves entire or obscurely crenate   50 Ser. Salicifoliae
+ Leaves pinnatipartite to pinnatisect   102 Ser. Flammeae
       
7 (5) Corolla 3--3.5 cm; roots glabrous   21 Ser. Salviiflorae
+ Corolla less than 2 cm; roots densely yellow-brown pubescent   26 Ser. Aloenses
       
8 (4) Leaves mostly basal, stem leaves often only in 1 pair; flowers in a densely capitate spike or flowers only 2 or 3.   (9)
+ Leaves mostly on stem, basal leaves few; flowers not in a dense capitulum, more than 2 or 3.   (10)
       
9 (8) Plants 2--4 cm tall; flowers few; galea without a protuberance at middle of margin on each side   87 Ser. Collatae
+ Plants usually more than 10 cm tall; galea with a protuberance at middle of margin on each side   89 Ser. Cernuae
       
10 (8) Corolla galea at least as long as lower lip.   (11)
+ Corolla galea shorter, only ca. 1/2 as long as lower lip, apex with only 1 tooth on each side of margin.   (12)
       
11 (10) Corolla apex with several teeth on each side of margin   76 Ser. Lyratae
+ Corolla apex obscurely 2-toothed   36 Ser. Pteridifoliae
       
12 (10) Calyx relatively large, with dense reticulate veins, teeth triangular, entire   38 Ser. Pentagonae
+ Calyx relatively small, without dense reticulate veins, teeth leaflike, serrate   84 Ser. Atrovirides
       
13 (3) Corolla tube ± elongated, more than 2 X as long as calyx.   (14)
+ Corolla tube not elongated, less than 2 X as long as calyx.   (19)
       
14 (13) Stems usually flexuous, ascending, more than 40 cm tall.   (15)
+ Stems diffuse or if erect then more than 10 cm tall.   (16)
       
15 (14) Corolla beak bending downward   28 Ser. Flexuosae
+ Corolla beak bending upward   33 Ser. Omiianae
       
16 (14) Plants low; stems short or sometimes nearly absent.   (17)
+ Stems ± elongated, diffuse.   (18)
       
17 (16) Stems short, erect, ± woody; leaf segments few; corolla beak slightly recurved   75 Ser. Urceolatae
+ Stems often trailing or plants ± stemless, not woody; leaves pinnatisect; corolla beak straight   31 Ser. Axillares
       
18 (16) Stems herbaceous; calyx lobes shorter than calyx tube; galea not dilated apically, toothless at margin   86 Ser. Sikkimenses
+ Stems ± woody; calyx lobes longer than calyx tube; galea dilated apically, toothed on lower margin   34 Ser. Batangenses
       
19 (13) Stems repent basally.   (20)
+ Stems erect, not repent if diffuse.   (21)
       
20 (19) Plants annual; leaves on stem, not fernlike   77 Ser. Reptantes
+ Plants perennial; leaves basal, fernlike   30 Ser. Vagantes
       
21 (19) Beak of galea slender, usually S-shaped; leaves narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate   80 Ser. Integrifoliae
+ Beak of galea short, straight or curved, not S-shaped; leaves wider.   (22)
       
22 (21) Corolla with 2 colors   73 Ser. Binariae
+ Corolla with only 1 color.   (23)
       
23 (22) Leaves alternate, often pseudo-opposite throughout; flowers long pedicellate.   (24)
+ Leaves opposite throughout; flowers not long pedicellate.   (27)
       
24 (23) Galea not crested, beak usually straight; calyx not or slightly cleft anteriorly.   (25)
+ Galea usually crested, sometimes inconspicuously; calyx deeply cleft anteriorly.   (26)
       
25 (24) Plants 5--9 cm tall; stems 2--4; Xizang   96 Ser. Mychophilae
+ Plants 30--70 cm tall; stems single; not in Xizang   45 Ser. Racemosae
       
26 (24) Beak curved; calyx 2- or 3-lobed   97 Ser. Franchetianae
+ Beak straight or falcate; calyx 3--5-lobed   67 Ser. Strobilaceae
       
27 (23) Stem leaves long petiolate; inflorescences long spicate; calyx large, with dense reticulate veins, lobes entire   39 Ser. Dichotomae
+ Stem leaves short petiolate; inflorescences short; calyx small, without reticulate veins, lobes serrate.   (28)
       
28 (27) Galea margin 1-auricled, apex of beak erose-denticulate   88 Ser. Pseudoasplenifoliae
+ Galea margin not auricled, apex of beak not erose-denticulate.   (29)
       
29 (28) Galea marginally 2-toothed; leaves small, broadly ovate   85 Ser. Remotilobae
+ Galea not marginally 2-toothed; leaves larger, narrower   79 Ser. Debiles
       
30 (2) Corolla galea beakless (except for a short beak in ser. 52, 22, 61, 59).   (31)
+ Corolla galea beaked.   (45)
       
31 (30) Corolla galea toothed.   (32)
+ Corolla galea toothless.   (36)
       
32 (31) Bases of whorled petioles of leaves or at least bracts connate, cupular   40 Ser. Reges
+ Bases of petioles of leaves and bracts not connate or cupular.   (33)
       
33 (32) Corolla tube strongly decurved in calyx, corolla ± S-shaped   55 Ser. Microchilae
+ Corolla tube not strongly decurved in calyx, corolla not S-shaped.   (34)
       
34 (33) Calyx lobes 2, calyx tube deeply cleft anteriorly   52 Ser. Ikomanae
+ Calyx lobes 5, calyx tube slightly cleft anteriorly.   (35)
       
35 (34) Calyx lobes triangular or lanceolate, entire   51 Ser. Rigidae
+ Calyx lobes ± leaflike, serrate   22 Ser. Melampyriflorae
       
36 (31) Bases of petioles of leaves and bracts connate, cupular   40 Ser. Reges
+ Bases of petioles of leaves and bracts not connate or cupular.   (37)
       
37 (36) Corolla tube decurved basally.   (38)
+ Corolla tube erect or decurved apically.   (39)
       
38 (37) Corolla yellow, galea plicate; anthers apiculate at apex   53 Ser. Plicatae
+ Corolla usually purple, red, white, or rarely yellow, galea not plicate; anthers not apiculate at apex   54 Ser. Verticillatae
       
39 (37) Corolla tube ± erect.   (40)
+ Corolla tube decurved.   (41)
       
40 (39) Plants annual; leaf segments 5--7 pairs   61 Ser. Simae
+ Plants perennial; leaf segments 7--17 pairs   1 Ser. Gloriosae
       
41 (39) Inflorescences and calyx densely tomentose   81 Ser. Pilostachyae
+ Inflorescences and calyx glabrous or sparsely pubescent.   (42)
       
42 (41) Corolla tube ± decurved at middle.   (43)
+ Corolla tube slightly curved, expanded, or bent forward apically.   (44)
       
43 (42) Plants annual; stems (15--)30--80 cm tall, often branched apically; corolla 7--9 mm   58 Ser. Molles
+ Plants perennial; stems 5--12 cm tall, simple; corolla 22--30 mm   57 Ser. Caucasicae
       
44 (42) Leaves pinnatipartite to pinnatisect; leaves whorled   60 Ser. Abrotanifoliae
+ Leaves pinnatilobate to pinnatifid; leaves opposite or whorled   59 Ser. Denudatae
       
45 (30) Corolla tube ca. 2.5--3 X as long as calyx   43 Ser. Cyathophyllae
+ Corolla tube less than 3 X as long as calyx.   (46)
       
46 (45) Bases of petioles of leaves and bracts connate, cupular.   (47)
+ Bases of petioles of leaves and bracts not connate or cupular.   (48)
       
47 (46) Galea navicular; beak indistinct   41 Ser. Cyathophylloides
+ Galea not navicular; beak long, distinct   42 Ser. Superbae
       
48 (46) Flowers scarcely 6 mm, in a dense capitate raceme   25 Ser. Coniferae
+ Flowers more than 10 mm.   (49)
       
49 (48) Beak of galea shorter than anther-containing part.   (50)
+ Beak of galea longer than anther-containing part.   (54)
       
50 (49) Stems with curved branches   23 Ser. Longicaules
+ Stems unbranched, or with erect straight branches.   (51)
       
51 (50) Corolla tube decurved in calyx tube   56 Ser. Cheilanthifoliae
+ Corolla tube not decurved in calyx tube.   (52)
       
52 (51) Corolla tube decurved in throat of calyx tube   23 Ser. Longicaules
+ Corolla tube not decurved or decurved outside calyx lobes.   (53)
       
53 (52) Anther-containing part of galea red, goosehead-shaped; stem leaves in 1 or 2 pairs   90 Ser. Tatsienenses
+ Anther-containing part of galea not red, not goosehead-shaped; stem leaves numerous   62 Ser. Myriophyllae
       
54 (49) Beak of galea coiled or twisted.   (55)
+ Beak of galea straight or slightly falcate-curved.   (58)
       
55 (54) Corolla tube bent at a right angle apically   83 Ser. Meteororhynchae
+ Corolla tube not bent at a right angle apically.   (56)
       
56 (55) Corolla yellow or purplish, with yellowish tube apically and lower lip basally   74 Ser. Pectinatiformes
+ Corolla purplish red or yellow, or yellow with purple galea.   (57)
       
57 (56) Calyx often less than 6 mm, lobes ± serrate; bracts usually narrower and serrate or pinnatilobate   63 Ser. Semitortae
+ Calyx often ca. 10 mm, lobes ± entire; bracts at least ovate and entire apically   64 Ser. Pectinatae
       
58 (54) Stems branched apically.   (59)
+ Stems unbranched apically.   (60)
       
59 (58) Branches in whorls of 4--6, often woody; beak of galea slightly falcate-curved; calyx lobes ovate; capsule ca. 1/2 exceeding calyx   24 Ser. Graciles
+ Branches opposite or in whorls of 4, herbaceous; beak of galea bent upward; calyx lobes triangular; capsule ca. 4/5 exceeding calyx   27 Ser. Moupinenses
       
60 (58) Corolla tube decurved in calyx   56 Ser. Cheilanthifoliae
+ Corolla tube not decurved.   (61)
       
61 (60) Basal leaves large, persistent, ± lanceolate or narrowly oblong, pinnatifid, with many segments; stem leaves in whorls of 3   82 Ser. Tantalorhynchae
+ Basal leaves smaller or not persistent, ± elliptic to ovate, with few segments; stem leaves sometimes opposite   78 Ser. Brevifoliae
       
62 (1) Corolla slightly beaked or beakless (beak not longer than wide).   (63)
+ Corolla beaked.   (84)
       
63 (62) Galea with marginal teeth near apex.   (64)
+ Galea without marginal teeth.   (73)
       
64 (63) Galea with several marginal teeth on each side near apex   105 Ser. Rhynchodontae
+ Galea usually with a distinct marginal tooth on each side of apex.   (65)
       
65 (64) Lower corolla lip usually erect or slightly spreading, corolla tube usually not decurved.   (66)
+ Lower corolla lip spreading, corolla tube usually decurved.   (69)
       
66 (65) Plants branched   44 Ser. Pedicularis
+ Plants usually unbranched.   (67)
       
67 (66) Basal leaves to 28 cm, with 5--9 pairs of segments   36 Ser. Pteridifoliae
+ Basal leaves less than 12 cm, with more segments.   (68)
       
68 (67) Plants reddish or reddish brown hirtellous; basal leaves persistent   20 Ser. Hirtellae
+ Plants not hirtellous; basal leaves not persistent   16 Ser. Striatae
       
69 (65) Leaves opposite or sometimes alternate apically; stems ascending   84 Ser. Atrovirides
+ Leaves alternate; stems erect.   (70)
       
70 (69) Plants usually less than 15 cm tall.   (71)
+ Plants usually more than 15 cm tall.   (72)
       
71 (70) Plants without persistent marcescent leaves at base; inflorescences more than 1/2 total height of plants, centrifugal   104 Ser. Pseudo-oederianae
+ Plants with persistent marcescent leaves at base; inflorescences short spicate or capitate   92 Ser. Merrillianae
       
72 (70) Leaves usually 2-pinnatifid, 1-pinnatisect, 2-pinnatisect or pinnatipartite   66 Ser. Comosae
+ Leaves usually 1-pinnatisect, with linear-lanceolate, dentate segments   65 Ser. Sudeticae
       
73 (63) Corolla tube decurved apically, lower lip spreading; capsule oblique.   (74)
+ Corolla tube usually erect or occasionally decurved basally, lower lip not spreading; capsule not oblique.   (77)
       
74 (73) Plants usually cespitose or procumbent to ascending.   (75)
+ Plants erect; flowers in a spike, or few and basilar, long pedicellate.   (76)
       
75 (74) Inflorescences terminal and basilar, usually distinctly centrifugal   103 Ser. Corydaloides
+ Flowers few, axillary   87 Ser. Collatae
       
76 (74) Inflorescences short, capitate or flowers few, not distinctly centrifugal   91 Ser. Roseae
+ Inflorescences elongated, spicate, with dense flowers   102 Ser. Flammeae
       
77 (73) Flowers axillary.   (78)
+ Plants with distinct erect stems; flowers usually in terminal inflorescences.   (79)
       
78 (77) Plants usually stemless   29 Ser. Acaules
+ Plants with distinct stems   26 Ser. Aloenses
       
79 (77) Apex of galea acute   2 Ser. Grandiflorae
+ Apex of galea usually rounded or obtuse.   (80)
       
80 (79) Throat of corolla expanded, lower lip long stipitate basally   3 Ser. Tsekouenses
+ Throat of corolla not expanded, lower lip not stipitate.   (81)
       
81 (80) Stem leaves usually few; plants not drying black   1 Ser. Gloriosae
+ Stem leaves usually numerous; plants drying black or not.   (82)
       
82 (81) Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, pinnatipartite; plants to 1 m tall   4 Ser. Tristes
+ Leaves ovate to elliptic-oblong, dentate to pinnatilobate; plants less than 40 cm tall.   (83)
       
83 (82) Plants drying black; rhizomes distinct, rootstock developed, roots glabrous; leaves alternate; corolla large, galea falcate apically   5 Ser. Galeatae
+ Plants not drying black; without rhizomes, roots densely yellowish brown pubescent; leaves mostly opposite; corolla ca. 1.3 cm, galea ± straight   26 Ser. Aloenses
       
84 (62) Corolla tube at least 2 X as long as calyx (except P. bicolor of ser. Wilsoniae).   (85)
+ Corolla tube less than 2 X as long as calyx.   (95)
       
85 (84) Plants usually diffuse; calyx lobes usually 5.   (86)
+ Plants erect or ± stemless; if stems diffuse, calyx lobes 2 or 3, not 5.   (88)
       
86 (85) Plants ± woody; leaves with linear segments; galea usually abruptly constricted into a straight beak   34 Ser. Batangenses
+ Plants herbaceous; leaves with ovate to oblong segments; galea usually gradually constricted into a beak.   (87)
       
87 (86) Beak of galea bent upward   33 Ser. Omiianae
+ Beak of galea not bent upward, usually straight or twisted   35 Ser. Muscicolae
       
88 (85) Plants more than 10 cm tall, if smaller, corolla often yellow, or corolla red-purple and less than 1.5 cm.   (89)
+ Plants less than 10 cm tall; corolla ± red-purple.   (91)
       
89 (88) Inflorescences short, racemose, centripetal; galea 1-toothed on each side   71 Ser. Amplitubae
+ Inflorescences usually longer, centrifugal; galea toothless at margin.   (90)
       
90 (89) Lower corolla lip spreading, not enveloping galea   111 Ser. Longiflorae
+ Lower corolla lip not spreading, usually enveloping galea, only slender beak projecting   112 Ser. Megalanthae
       
91 (88) Pedicel to 1--4 cm; galea circinate-incurved basally   101 Ser. Neolatitubae
+ Pedicel shorter; galea not incurved basally.   (92)
       
92 (91) Corolla tube expanded apically   100 Ser. Wilsoniae
+ Corolla tube not expanded apically.   (93)
       
93 (92) Corolla with lower lip less than 2 cm wide; corolla tube slender, usually less than 0.75 mm wide   99 Ser. Albiflorae
+ Corolla with lower lip more than 2 cm wide; corolla tube usually more than 1 mm wide.   (94)
       
94 (93) Leaves pinnatifid; beak of galea usually downward uncinate   108 Ser. Robustae
+ Leaves ± entire or only pinnatifid; beak of galea not downward uncinate   110 Ser. Pumiliones
       
95 (84) Galea usually marginally long ciliate.   (96)
+ Galea not marginally long ciliate.   (108)
       
96 (95) Galea navicular.   (97)
+ Galea not navicular.   (100)
       
97 (96) Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, pinnatilobate or dentate   8 Ser. Craspedotrichae
+ Leaves not linear, shorter and wider, segmented.   (98)
       
98 (97) Leaves pinnatisect, with linear-lanceolate segments   17 Ser. Proboscideae
+ Leaves double dentate to pinnatipartite, with shorter wider segments.   (99)
       
99 (98) Leaves ± lanceolate-oblong, less than 3.5 X as long as wide   7 Ser. Dolichocymbae
+ Leaves not linear to linear-lanceolate, more than 4 X as long as wide   6 Ser. Rudes
       
100 (96) Beak of galea nearly as long as lower corolla lip.   (101)
+ Beak of galea longer than lower corolla lip.   (104)
       
101 (100) Leaves mostly basal, pinnatisect with lanceolate segments; beak of galea with apical tuft of hairs   18 Ser. Lachnoglossae
+ Leaves mostly on stem, not pinnatisect; beak of galea without apical tuft of hairs.   (102)
       
102 (101) Lobes of lower corolla lip long stipitate basally, galea ± abruptly constricted into a slender beak   11 Ser. Lasiophrydes
+ Lobes of lower corolla lip not stipitate, galea gradually constricted into a beak.   (103)
       
103 (102) Plants usually more than 30 cm tall, to 80 cm; corolla galea less than 3 mm wide, sparsely pubescent   9 Ser. Imbricatae
+ Plants usually less than 30 cm tall; corolla galea 4--5 mm wide, densely pubescent   10 Ser. Trichoglossae
       
104 (100) Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate.   (105)
+ Leaves not narrowly linear.   (106)
       
105 (104) Plants usually more than 30 cm tall, to 1 m; beak of galea not twisted; lobes of lower corolla lip narrowly lanceolate   12 Ser. Kongboenses
+ Plants less than 30 cm tall; beak of galea S-shaped; lobes of lower corolla lip short, wide   15 Ser. Kialenses
       
106 (104) Leaves ± ovate, usually more than 3.5 cm wide   14 Ser. Excelsae
+ Leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, usually less than 3.5 cm wide (except P. angustilabris to 5.5 cm wide).   (107)
       
107 (106) Galea not twisted, densely villous at base and at margin; lobes of lower corolla lip not square-shaped   19 Ser. Recurvae
+ Galea strongly twisted, glabrous or villous on lower margin and beak; lobes of lower corolla lip nearly square-shaped   15 Ser. Kialenses
       
108 (95) Inflorescences distinctly centrifugal.   (109)
+ Inflorescences distinctly centripetal or indistinctly centrifugal.   (111)
       
109 (108) Beak of galea more than 3 X as long as lower corolla lip   107 Ser. Macrorhynchae
+ Beak of galea shorter or slightly longer than lower corolla lip.   (110)
       
110 (109) Lower corolla lip less than 1.2 cm wide   106 Ser. Filiculae
+ Lower corolla lip usually more than 1.5 cm wide   109 Ser. Macranthae
       
111 (108) Stems weak, slender, usually diffuse; flowers usually axillary.   (112)
+ Stems erect or ± ascending, or ± stemless; flowers arising from a stock.   (115)
       
112 (111) Flowers usually in clusters at base of stems   30 Ser. Vagantes
+ Flowers not in clusters at base of stems, solitary.   (113)
       
113 (112) Galea with pairs of marginal teeth   94 Ser. Odontophorae
+ Galea without marginal teeth.   (114)
       
114 (113) Leaves without distinct reticulate veins abaxially; calyx tube without reticulate veins   31 Ser. Axillares
+ Leaves with distinct reticulate veins abaxially; calyx tube with reticulate veins apically   32 Ser. Infirmae
       
115 (111) Inflorescences usually elongated, not interrupted.   (116)
+ Inflorescences usually subcapitate, few flowered, or ± elongated and interrupted basally.   (117)
       
116 (115) Stems to 80 cm tall; leaves relatively large; corolla relatively small, beak of galea bent upward, lower lip 1/4 to 1/3 as long as galea   13 Ser. Subsurrectae
+ Stems shorter; leaves relatively small; corolla relatively large, beak of galea bent downward only, lower lip longer   69 Ser. Oxycarpae
       
117 (115) Plants less than 10 cm tall, without a distinct main stem.   (118)
+ Plants more than 10 cm tall.   (121)
       
118 (117) Leaves numerous, persistent, with several narrow segments   93 Ser. Asplenifoliae
+ Leaves few, not persistent, with fewer wider segments.   (119)
       
119 (118) Lower corolla lip more than 2 cm wide, galea usually robust, apex of beak 2-cleft   108 Ser. Robustae
+ Lower corolla lip narrower, galea narrower, apex of beak not 2-cleft.   (120)
       
120 (119) Stems rigid; leaves alternate; roots numerous   95 Ser. Paucifoliatae
+ Stems usually weak, flexuous; leaves usually pseudo-opposite; roots few   96 Ser. Mychophilae
       
121 (117) Pedicel to 3--11.5 cm; galea not twisted   97 Ser. Franchetianae
+ Pedicel less than 3 cm; galea strongly twisted laterally.   (122)
       
122 (121) Flowers ± in a capitulum.   (123)
+ Flowers ± in a raceme.   (128)
       
123 (122) Corolla more than 3 cm; lower lip relatively wide, often completely enveloping galea   98 Ser. Pseudomacranthae
+ Corolla usually less than 2.5 cm; lower lip relatively narrow, often spreading, not enveloping galea.   (124)
       
124 (123) Leaves to 2.5--13 X 14 cm, stem leaves often ovate-elliptic   37 Ser. Phaceliifoliae
+ Leaves smaller, ± oblong or lanceolate.   (125)
       
125 (124) Plants usually branched basally and at middle   67 Ser. Strobilaceae
+ Plants unbranched or only branched basally.   (126)
       
126 (125) Corolla to 2.8 cm; beak of galea very long, S-shaped or semicircular   72 Ser. Rhinanthoides
+ Corolla smaller; beak of galea shorter, not S-shaped or semicircular.   (127)
       
127 (126) Leaves pinnatifid or pinnatipartite   95 Ser. Paucifoliatae
+ Leaves pinnatisect or pinnatipartite   68 Ser. Oliganthae
       
128 (122) Galea strongly twisted laterally at base   70 Ser. Dissectae
+ Galea not strongly twisted laterally at base.   (129)
       
129 (128) Leaves often ovate or elliptic, with few segments   49 Ser. Furfurae
+ Leaves oblong to linear, with numerous segments, some merely crenate.   (130)
       
130 (129) Basal leaves cespitose; plants herbaceous; bracts petiolate   95 Ser. Paucifoliatae
+ Basal leaves not cespitose; plants ± woody; bracts sessile.   (131)
       
131 (130) Leaves only double dentate or entire.   (132)
+ Leaves pinnatipartite to pinnatisect.   (133)
       
132 (131) Beak of galea distinct   45 Ser. Racemosae
+ Beak of galea indistinct   46 Ser. Carnosae
       
133 (131) Pedicel relatively short; beak of galea short or obscure   47 Ser. Microphyllae
+ Pedicel relatively long, distinct; beak of galea slender   48 Ser. Polyphyllatae

  • List of lower taxa


     

    Related Objects  
  • WANG H. & D.Z. LI. 2005. Pollination Biology of Four Pedicularis Species (Scrophulariaceae) in North
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    Photos by The Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains Project  
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